The high sensitivity of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allows isotope imaging and the high spatial precision has a potential for the localization of isotopes corresponding to the ultrastructure of cell components. This paper reviews a study in which transfers of carbon and nitrogen from the fungus in a symbiotic orchid protocorm were analyzed, combining an isotope tracer experiment, sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy, and SIMS cellular imaging. The results showed that, 13C and15N transferred from young and senescent hyphae, and in the plant cells, they were localized differently in individual cells and organelles, depending on the colonization status (the presence or absence of fungal structures and the early or late developmental stage of the fungal structure). Stable isotope imaging at the cellular level provides new insights into cellular functions of the endosymbiosis.
The development of dendrimer reactors opened the new research field by the production of metal subnanoparticles with definite atomicities. These precise platinum subnanoparticles exhibited the true catalytic properties, which have been hidden by the conventional synthetic method due to the substantial size distribution. One significant finding was that the several subnanoparticles exhibited much higher oxygen reduction reaction catalytic activity than the conventional platinum nanoparticle (∼3 nm). The result was completely opposite to the common notice that the most catalytically active particle size is ca. 3 nm. Despite of this inconsistence, it was finally concluded that some subnanoparticles have specific surfaces which have higher activities originated from the unique geometric structures.
A method for debonding polyimide film and ultra-thin glass from glass substrate is proposed. The method is based on the surface activated bonding approach extended to a modified bonding process using Si nano-adhesion layer. The surfaces of both polyimide film and the glass substrate are activated by Si nano-adhesion layer deposited in vacuum and bonded in situ at room temperature whereas only the ultra-thin glass surface is treated with Si nano-adhesion layer, and bonded in vacuum to glass substrate after exposure to N2 gas. Even after a thermal treatment such as TFT process over 400 to 500°C, they can be debonded by mechanical peeling at room temperature.
The real time observation of nanoscale deformation is a significant step toward understanding the mechanisms of friction, wear and lubrication. Our experimental system of a micromachine combined with a TEM enabled us to measure the deformation, force and actual contact area of a single Ag and Fe asperity. The experimental results provided insight into one of the parameters that determines the frictional coefficient. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the energy loss associated with a separation event is correlated with the increase in total surface energy of the two surfaces formed here after the separation of the nano-contact.
Low energy ion scattering spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the analysis of the topmost surface composition and structure. Low energy atom scattering spectroscopy is a quite useful tool for the analysis of the topmost insulator surfaces, as well. Because the primary beams of low energy atom scattering are electrically neutral. This report provides some of the basic principles relating to the interaction between low energy particles (ions/atoms) and topmost surfaces. Due to the large amount of research carried out in this field, selected materials are shown in this report.