The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-3989
Print ISSN : 0388-1350
ISSN-L : 0388-1350
Original Article
Proliferating effect of orotic acid through mTORC1 activation mediated by negative regulation of AMPK in SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells
Eun-Jeong JungKang-Yo LeeByung-Hoon Lee
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2012 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 813-821


Orotic acid (OA) is a tumor promoter of experimental liver carcinogenesis initiated by DNA reactive carcinogens, the molecular mechanisms of which have not been fully elucidated. OA increases cell proliferation and decreases apoptosis in serum-starved SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which may ascribe to the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and thus activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The effects of OA on mTORC1 activation, cell proliferation, and cell-cycle progression to S and G2/M phases were completely reversed by rapamycin. Activation of AMPK by a constitutively active mutant or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) rescued the effects of OA. In conclusion, OA increases the proliferation and decreases the starvation-induced apoptosis of SK-Hep1 cells via mTORC1 activation mediated by negative regulation of AMPK.

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© 2012 The Japanese Society of Toxicology
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