Some patients encounter hepatotoxicity after repeated acetaminophen (APAP) dosing even at therapeutic doses. In the present study, we focused on the diabetic state as one of the suggested risk factors of drug-induced liver injury in humans and investigated the contribution of accelerated gluconeogenesis to the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity using an animal model of type 2 diabetes patients. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously diabetic torii (SDT) rats were each given APAP at 0 mg/kg, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 35 days by oral gavage. Plasma and urinary glutathione-related metabolites, liver function parameters, and hepatic glutathione levels were compared between the non-APAP-treated SDT and SD rats and between the APAP-treated SDT and SD rats. Hepatic function parameters were not increased at either dose level in the APAP-treated SD rats, but were increased at both dose levels in the APAP-treated SDT rats. Increases in hepatic glutathione levels attributable to the treatment of APAP were noted only in the APAP-treated SD rats. There were differences in the profiles of plasma and urinary glutathione-related metabolites between the non-APAP-treated SD and SDT rats and the plasma/urinary endogenous metabolite profile after treatment with APAP in the SDT rats indicated that hepatic glutathione synthesis was decreased due to accelerated gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, SDT rats were more sensitive to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity than SD rats and the high susceptibility of SDT rats was considered to be attributable to lowered hepatic glutathione levels induced by accelerated gluconeogenesis.
This study was aimed to investigate morphological alteration of the retina with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced injury in rabbits by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The right and left eyes of a total of 12 rabbits received single-intravitreal injection of vehicle and NMDA, respectively. Four out of the 12 animals underwent OCT and quantification of plasma microRNA repeatedly (4, 48, and 168 hr after dosing), followed by ocular histopathology at the end of the study. Ocular histopathology was also conducted in the eyes collected 4 or 48 hr after dosing from 4 animals at each time period. OCT revealed hyper-reflective ganglion cell complex and thickened inner retina in NMDA-treated eyes 4 hr after dosing; the inner retina shifted to thinning at later time points. The eyes given NMDA also exhibited greater thickness of the outer retina, which contains photoreceptors, after treatment, and thickened and obscured ellipsoid zone 168 hr after dosing. The plasma levels of miR-182 and miR-183, which are known to be highly expressed in photoreceptors, were higher 4 hr after dosing than pre-dosing values. Histopathologically, NMDA-induced inner retinal damage was confirmed: single-cell necrosis was observed in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer 4 hr after dosing, the incidence of which decreased thereafter. At 168 hr after dosing, reduced number of ganglion cells was noted. No change was histopathologically observed in the outer retina. In conclusion, our results suggest involvement of photoreceptors in NMDA-induced inner retinal injury. Additionally, OCT revealed acute inner retinal findings suggestive of temporary edema.
Environmental neurotoxins such as paraquat (PQ), manganese, and 1-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) are associated with a higher risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These parkinsonian toxins exert certain common toxicological effects on astroglia; however, their role in the regulatory functions of astroglial secretory proteins remains unclear. In a previous study, we observed that secretogranin II (SCG2) and secretogranin III (SCG3), which are important components of the regulated secretory pathway, were elevated in PQ-activated U118 astroglia. In the current study, we used the parkinsonian toxins dopamine (DA), active metabolite of MPTP (MPP+), MnCl2, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as inducers, and studied the potential regulation of SCG2 and SCG3. Our results showed that all the parkinsonian toxins except LPS affected astroglial viability but did not cause apoptosis. Exposure to DA, MPP+, and MnCl2 upregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrocyte activation, and stimulated the levels of several astrocytic-derived factors. Further, DA, MPP+, and MnCl2 exposure impeded astroglial cell cycle progression. Moreover, the expression of SCG3 was elevated, while its exosecretion was inhibited in astroglia activated by parkinsonian toxins. The level of SCG2 remained unchanged. In combination with our previous findings, the results of this study indicate that SCG3 may act as a cofactor in astrocyte activation stimulated by various toxins, and the regulation of SCG3 could be involved in the toxicological mechanism by which parkinsonian toxins affect astroglia.
Despite the developmental toxicity reported in animals, few epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) on fetal growth. A birth cohort study was conducted to examine the association between prenatal exposure to PYRs and birth outcomes, and a nested case-control study was conducted in this cohort to evaluate the effects of PYR on congenital defects. The assessment of PYR exposure was based on self-reported household pesticide use and urinary PYR metabolite levels. We found that pregnant women in this region were ubiquitously exposed to low-level PYRs, although few reported household pesticide use. Women who often ate bananas or cantaloupes had a higher level of urinary 3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DBCA), and the number of fruit types consumed by pregnant women was positively related to the concentrations of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) and total PYR metabolites (P < 0.05). Increased urinary 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F3PBA), DBCA, and total PYR metabolites were associated with increased birth weight, length, and gestational age, and with decreased risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and/or premature birth. However, maternal household pesticides use was related to congenital anomalies. Thus, although prenatal exposure to low-dose PYRs promoted the fetal growth, the beneficial effects of fruit intake may outweigh the adverse effects of pesticide exposure. This study provided us an insight into the biological mechanisms for the effect of prenatal PYR exposure on fetal development, and suggested that further investigations in a larger study population with low-dose PYR exposure is needed.
Acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can cause fatal acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanisms of H2S-induced ALI are still not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the role of the tight junction protein claudin-5 in H2S-induced ALI. In our study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to H2S to establish the ALI model, and in parallel, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were incubated with NaHS (a H2S donor) to establish a cell model. Lung immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays were used to identify H2S-induced ALI, and the expression of claudin-5, p-AKT/t-AKT and p-FoxO1/t-FoxO1 was detected. Our results show that H2S promoted the formation of ALI by morphological investigation and decreased claudin-5 expression. Dexamethasone (Dex) could partly attenuate NaHS-mediated claudin-5 downregulation, and the protective effects of Dex could be partially blocked by LY294002, a PI3K/AKT/FoxO1 pathway antagonist. Moreover, as a consequence of the altered phosphorylation of AKT and FoxO1, a change in claudin-5 with the same trend was observed. Therefore, the tight junction protein claudin-5 might be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI induced by H2S and other hazardous gases.