2017 Volume 42 Issue 5 Pages 629-640
The objective of this study was to investigate the availability of novel urinary biomarkers (BMs) such as total protein, albumin, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for the detection of acute nephrotoxicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Animals (total 9 males/3 groups) were administered gentamicin (GM) subcutaneously at 40 mg/kg for 7 days, cisplatin (CDDP) intravenously at 3 mg/kg once and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) intravenously at 20 mg/kg for 7 days. Two-hr urine on Days 0, 3, and 6, and 16-hr urine and blood on Days 1, 4, and 7 were collected. Novel urinary BMs and conventional clinical pathology parameters were evaluated in parallel to histopathological and electron microscopic examinations on the kidneys at termination. Urinary BMs and enzymes increased earlier than serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, particularly in 2-hr urine after dosing on Day 0, urinary albumin was increased in all groups and urinary NGAL with the highest magnitude of change rate among urinary BMs was observed in the GM and CDDP groups. Degeneration/necrosis and hyaline droplet of renal tubule, cellular cast and dilatation of renal tubule, and hypertrophy of podocytes were observed in the GEN, CDDP, and PAN groups, respectively. These results showed that the increases of urinary BMs reflected the agent-specific renal damages and these urinary BMs could be useful for the detection of segment-specific nephrotoxicity. Urinary albumin and NGAL are the most useful BMs to estimate glomerular and distal tubular damages, respectively, as well as proximal tubular damage in cynomolgus monkeys.