2020 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 245-260
Some patients encounter hepatotoxicity after repeated acetaminophen (APAP) dosing even at therapeutic doses. In the present study, we focused on the diabetic state as one of the suggested risk factors of drug-induced liver injury in humans and investigated the contribution of accelerated gluconeogenesis to the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity using an animal model of type 2 diabetes patients. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously diabetic torii (SDT) rats were each given APAP at 0 mg/kg, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 35 days by oral gavage. Plasma and urinary glutathione-related metabolites, liver function parameters, and hepatic glutathione levels were compared between the non-APAP-treated SDT and SD rats and between the APAP-treated SDT and SD rats. Hepatic function parameters were not increased at either dose level in the APAP-treated SD rats, but were increased at both dose levels in the APAP-treated SDT rats. Increases in hepatic glutathione levels attributable to the treatment of APAP were noted only in the APAP-treated SD rats. There were differences in the profiles of plasma and urinary glutathione-related metabolites between the non-APAP-treated SD and SDT rats and the plasma/urinary endogenous metabolite profile after treatment with APAP in the SDT rats indicated that hepatic glutathione synthesis was decreased due to accelerated gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, SDT rats were more sensitive to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity than SD rats and the high susceptibility of SDT rats was considered to be attributable to lowered hepatic glutathione levels induced by accelerated gluconeogenesis.