2020 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 271-280
Environmental neurotoxins such as paraquat (PQ), manganese, and 1-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) are associated with a higher risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These parkinsonian toxins exert certain common toxicological effects on astroglia; however, their role in the regulatory functions of astroglial secretory proteins remains unclear. In a previous study, we observed that secretogranin II (SCG2) and secretogranin III (SCG3), which are important components of the regulated secretory pathway, were elevated in PQ-activated U118 astroglia. In the current study, we used the parkinsonian toxins dopamine (DA), active metabolite of MPTP (MPP+), MnCl2, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as inducers, and studied the potential regulation of SCG2 and SCG3. Our results showed that all the parkinsonian toxins except LPS affected astroglial viability but did not cause apoptosis. Exposure to DA, MPP+, and MnCl2 upregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrocyte activation, and stimulated the levels of several astrocytic-derived factors. Further, DA, MPP+, and MnCl2 exposure impeded astroglial cell cycle progression. Moreover, the expression of SCG3 was elevated, while its exosecretion was inhibited in astroglia activated by parkinsonian toxins. The level of SCG2 remained unchanged. In combination with our previous findings, the results of this study indicate that SCG3 may act as a cofactor in astrocyte activation stimulated by various toxins, and the regulation of SCG3 could be involved in the toxicological mechanism by which parkinsonian toxins affect astroglia.