2011 年 16 巻 1 号 p. 13-14
Based on the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease in 2010, the Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control Law was revised for the purpose of strengthening the prevention against these infectious diseases on April 4, 2011. However, the revision of the listed diseases of the honeybee was not performed.
In honeybees, a phenomenon called colony collapse disorder (CCD) has been observed in the worldwide from 2006. CCD has been partly considered to be caused by infectious diseases. In Japan, foulbrood diseases with Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius, varroatosis with Varroa jacobsoni, chalkbrood disease with Ascosphaera apis, tracheal acariosis with Acarapis woodi and nosemosis with Nosema apis in honeybees were listed under the law for the prevention.
Since 1998, there were frequently outbreaks of foulbrood disease, varroatosis and chalkbrood disease according to the database of surveillance of Japan. Nosemosis also has sporadically occurred at nationwide. In 2010, tracheal acariosis and Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) disease were reported at the first time in Japan.
Previous investigation was carried out to detect varroatosis, tracheal acariosis and nosemosis in the dead honeybees collected in Okayama Prefecture in the autumn of 2009 (due to Yamada Research Grants of the honeybee in 2009). In results of this investigation, Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae were detected at a high rate in honeybees. These two pathogens were not the species of pathogens listed under the law. In addition, tracheal acariosis was not detected in this study.
The purpose of the Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control Law is to prevent the epidemics in honeybees for the promotion of animal husbandry. Therefore, these suggested which new pathogens such as IAPV, V. destructor and N. ceranae also must be specified under the law and the epidemiological surveillances of epidemics at nationwide must be carried out in honeybees.