1998 年 43 巻 5 号 p. 385-401
Various suggestive documents and associated sketehes are collected for understanding the pre-eruptive and the earliest stages of the 1914 great eruption of Sakurajima volcano, southwestern Japan, in Taisho era. Based on these records, the premonitory process to the eruption was reviewed especially with respect to the occurrence of many earthquakes which resulted in repeated rock falls with dust clouds, unusual upwelling of water and hot spring, and emission of volcanic smoke in the morning of January 12. Although there are many descriptions on the beginning of the remarkable eruption, they are sometimes inconsistent with each other. In the present paper, it is proposed that the valcano started to erupt around 09 : 58 on January 12 (Japanese Standard Time) at 200 m in height in the western slope of the mountain. In several minutes, a line of craterlets was formed between 200-500 m in height in the WNW-ESE direction. The development of a subsurface fissure in this direction resulted in another outbreak in the southeastern slope probably around 10 : 05. For the better understanding of this important eruptive event, discoveries of additional references are still desired.