1986 年 1986 巻 83 号 p. 39-53,L8
Since the late 1960's, technology transfer has become an issue of special importance. For North, especially TNC, it was an indispensable part of their global strategy in which those affiliated in developing countries, LDC, had to be an integrative part of the world-wide operation. For South, governments concerned in particular, it was also pertinent to their national development strategy, i. e. rapid industrialization.
However, there are a number of differences in evaluating technologies involved, the process of their transfer, their outcomes, and their implications. Here, two views are looked into in detail. The first is one which stresses technology transfer as the way for “diffusion of innovation”, the term used by E. M. Rogers. According to this view, technology is a qualitative production element, i. e. “innovation”, and its transfer does promote technology development in LDC through “immanent changes” as well as “contact changes”. Yet, as D. Spencer argues, technology transfer in the form of a “package deal” may create the “world technological (hierarchical) system” which reflects unequal and hierarchical order of the world today, economic, political and military.
As against this, the second view, such as one by C. V. Vaitsos, places more emphases upon the unequalness inherent in technology transfer. Thus he prefers to call it as “technology purchase”. By seeing technology today as “commercialized goods”, this view concentrates on the analysis of the process of “commercialization” of technology, and suggests in conclusion that the transfer is ideed deepening the already existing LDC's dependence upon North.
In many ways. both views commonly point out the facts that, firstly technology transfer is an increasingly important integrative part of TNC's globalization effort. Secondly technology transfer in its present form does not bring about a significant challenge to the domination system of North. Thirdly technology transfer does reinforce LDC's dependence not merely in technology but also economic, political and military order today.
In order to get out of dilemmas inherent in technology transfer, therefore, of importance to LDC especially are not just a search of “new international technology order”, but also the transformation of unequal structure within and without, i. e. North-South inequality structure.