Online ISSN : 2187-5278
Print ISSN : 0387-3161
ISSN-L : 0387-3161
Imperial Ordinance Draft by E.Hausknecht
Teruo Takenaka
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2000 Volume 67 Issue 3 Pages 344-352


This paper introduces a newly-found imperial ordinance draft drawn up by Emil Hausknecht(1853-1927)on certification and state examination of middle school teachers, a draft whose existence was firmly believed but was never confirmed. Emil Hausknecht, a foreigner teacher in Tokyo Imperial University from 1887 to 1890, appealed in his letter to Yajiro Shinagawa, stating that the draft was prepared with Kazuyuki Egi and that the immediate promulgation would be appreciated. Hausknecht insisted on occasion that middle school teachers should be selected from university graduates by two state examinations as in Germany and that their status and treatment needed to be enhanced. However, in the draft, he made a compromise on this most important point. Nevertheless, the imperial ordinance draft contained a number of differences compared with the existing examination system for middle school teachers in Japan. Therefore, it was meaningful to submit the draft to the Japanese government. The draft also contained uncompromising points. There were two important points;one was the adoption of two-step examination system as in Germany, in which a knowledge test and a practical ability test were required;the other was the introduction of pedagogy/teaching method as a compulsory subject for all candidates. The latterpoint was particularly the one Hausknecht could not concede as a Herbartian. After all, the imperial ordinance was not issued, and Hausknecht went back to Germany disappointedly. However, many items contained in the draft were realized each time the state examination system was reformed. Out of the items insisted by Hausknecht, unrealized were only three, namely, the practical ability test, combined subject examination system, and title system for higher grade teachers. It is not certain, however, if the realization was really derived from the imperial ordinance draft. There has been no proof in the affirmative nor in the negative as of now. The remaining problem is a new historical discovery.

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