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  • Ikuko NUNOMURA
    2020 Volume 87 Issue 3 Pages 329-341
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 09, 2021

     In the period from the end of 1949 to the first half of 1950, the Japan Teachersʼ Union (hereafter JTU) moved towards a policy promoting complete and overall peace in relation to the issue of the peace settlement of Japan. It is important in examining the character of the JTUʼs peace campaign in the 1950s to look at why the JTU was the first among Japanʼs labor unions to embrace the concept of complete and overall peace and how it arrived at this conclusion. The purpose of this paper is to address these questions by following the deliberations of the JTU Central Executive Committee. In particular, the paper focuses on the Central Executive Committee members and groups involved in the decision to promote overall peace, and analyzes their reasoning.

     The findings are as follows. In the JTUʼs move toward the promotion of an overall peace policy, the responsibility for drafting JTU peace campaign policies shifted from the organizationʼs Education and Culture Section to its Planning Committee. This shift in responsibility led to the following changes in JTUʼs peace campaign policies. First, the way was cleared for promoting complete and overall peace. Second, the JTUʼs strategy became a two-pronged policy addressing the diverse struggles of labor unions in general, together with its campaigns to raise awareness of educational issues. Third, while the campaign policies continued to be grounded in the recommendations for promoting peace through education made by various UNESCO peace study groups, there was a distinct shift in emphasis to the Constitution of Japan.

     In examining the implications of these changes, it is necessary to consider the activities taking place at the time outside the JTU. Notable is that various groups outside the JTU, with the exception of the Japan Communist Party, were at this time embracing the idea of complete and overall peace in their peace campaigns. The decision to shift responsibility for drafting JTU peace campaign policies from the Education and Culture Section to the Planning Committee suggests that the peace campaign promoted by the JTUʼs Central Executive Committee, which was alert to matters outside of the JTU, eventually became the official policy of the JTC in the 1950s. Thus, we see how the JTUʼs peace campaign in the 1950s came to reflect a clearly liberal stance aligned with the peace policies of the Japan Socialist Party and the General Council of Trade Unions of Japan (Sōhyō).

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    2020 Volume 87 Issue 3 Pages 342-353
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 09, 2021

     Between 1933 and 1957, an experimental liberal arts college called Black Mountain College (hereafter BMC) existed in the mountains of North Carolina in the United States. The recent archiving of historical materials has led to research on BMC from various perspectives, so far focusing on experimental art practices, mainly due to the influence of the Bauhaus, and the names of the artists involved. Pedagogical studies have interpreted BMC as progressive education in practice, evaluating it as realizing the idea of American democracy. It had two features of educational practice: (1) experimental community management based on community life, and (2) the placement of the arts at the center of the curriculum.

     However, previous research has not discussed the relationship between community and art at BMC. It has not been noted that J. A. Rice, the first rector of BMC, positioned the BMC community as the means and individuals as the end. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the means of “interpreting individuals as the end and the BMC as the means” in Riceʼs educational thought, and with reference to John Deweyʼs philosophy, to clarify how the arts as the center of the curriculum, another characteristic of BMC, related to Riceʼs ideas of the relationship between “community” and “individual.”

     In the context of this purpose, there is the debatable issue of the concept of community in educational discussion. The thought of New Education, including progressive education, has emphasized community; however, it has been variously criticized. One critique suggests that the emphasis on community risks erasing individuals. This criticism also targets Deweyʼs thought, one of the essential referential points of progressive education. On this issue, neither choosing between community and individual nor respecting both community and individual can solve the problem. The question is how education, while remaining community-based, can find individuals who do not become buried in the community. This paper resolves this problem by focusing on Rice and Deweyʼs thoughts in the context of “progressive education.”

     In order to achieve this purpose, this paper discusses the following three points. First, the paper confirms that Rice viewed the community as the basis for the unexchangeable and irreplaceable individual as a protest against the established order. Next, the paper clarifies that this protest also needs individuality based on art-experience. However, it will also become apparent that Riceʼs discussion of individuals and individuality based on art-experience involves the possibility of avoiding the risk of individuals becoming buried in the community, and has not been able to discuss this possibility thoroughly enough. Therefore, finally, with Deweyʼs thought as a guide, the paper points out that individuality based on art-experience can create a mutually non-reductive linkage between community and individual by bringing “new perceptions” into the common world.

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  • Nariko HASHIDA
    2020 Volume 87 Issue 3 Pages 354-366
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 09, 2021

     The purpose of this study is to clarify the formation process of supporting independent living (IL) in response to the self-advocacy movements of people with learning disabilities (LD). For the purpose, this study focuses on the practices of adult education tutors, who have supported the self-advocacy movement in the United Kingdom.

     In the 1970s, the “transition to adulthood” of people with disabilities was brought up as an educational matter in the UK. Two reports suggested that Further and Adult Education could contribute to the independence of disabled people. Thereafter, the Further Education Unit (FEU) promoted vocational training for people with LD, calling for parental involvement. In general, adolescence is recognized as a period when young people leave their parents' homes. However, people with LD had remained under parental control. Therefore, resistance movements of adults with LD have arisen, revealing the difficulties of parent-child relationships.

     In 1982, the City Literary Institute (an institute for adult education) created an adult education course called “Speaking Up” for adults with LD. In this course, the tutor supported “independence of mind” in people with LD through creating an environment which supported the representation of their own opinions. There was frequent debate on the relationships with their parents, who had suppressed their opinions.

     The students at City Literary Institute formed an organization of their own in the mid-1980s. The tutor and the organization members cooperated to publish a textbook for further education tutors. The tutor studied where difficult relationships with parents come from. They called on further education tutors to play the role of constructing relationships between adults. The tutor also joined an FEU research project and pointed out the problems with the community care policy, which prioritized “Family Care” and delayed the transition from “families of disabled people”. Consequently, this project revealed that people with LD and their parents have different ideas, just as those in other families do, and suggested that the staff training should include the conflicts of “families of disabled people”.

     After that, two nationwide institutes proposed that further education tutors support the construction of relationships between people with LD and their neighbors, as the people with LD did not want to live alone and needed the social support. The tutors felt that social support could change parental attitudes to their children and promote IL. By the 1990s, further education institutes promoted integrated education to create supporting networks around people with LD.

     This study found that adult education tutors recognized the issues of parent-child relationships from an adult's viewpoint and supported the construction of relationships inside and outside families of disabled people. Therefore, adult education tutors promoted the building of relationships in support of independence from parents in response to self-advocacy movements.

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  • Hideaki KAWAKAMI
    2020 Volume 87 Issue 3 Pages 367-378
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 09, 2021

     This study aims to discuss the possibilities and limits of Akira Moriʼs discussion of “history” and “nature” in the concept of human “becoming,” through analyzing the relationship between Mori and the “Kyoto School.” In particular, this study focuses on the relationship between interpretations of Martin Heidegger by Mori and by two philosophers of the Kyoto School.

     First, the study analyses Masaaki Kōsaka and Tetsurō Watsujiʼs interpretations of Heidegger, which is the context of Moriʼs interpretation likewise. Kōsaka and Watsuji, both philosophers of the Kyoto School, analyze the concept of “everydayness” in Heidegger and consider the relationship between humans and “tools” in everydayness. These interpretations enable Kōsaka to argue for humans as “homo faber,” and Watsuji to consider human everydayness as aidagara (relationships).

     Second, the study analyzes Moriʼs interpretation of Heideggerʼs philosophy in the book Kyouiku no Jissensei to Naimensei (Practicality and Internality of Education, 1955) through focusing on the continuity with Kōsaka and Watsujiʼs interpretations of Heidegger. Mori discusses the relationship between human “natural life” and “historical life” through acceptance of Kōsaka and Watsujiʼs interpretations of Heidegger, which also enables him to focus on the concept of “historical-social reality.”

     Third, the study analyzes Moriʼs book Kyouiku-ningengaku (Educational Anthropology, 1961) and clarifies how Mori interprets Heidegger in order to discuss the tension between history and nature in human becoming. As mentioned in the previous sections, Mori accepts Kōsaka and Watsujiʼs interpretations of Heidegger to discuss the relationship between human natural life and historical life, focusing on the concept of “historical-social reality.” These arguments prove that Mori interprets Heidegger under the influence of the Kyoto School.

     Finally, the study criticizes Moriʼs concept of human becoming. Mori argues that historicity is important in the concept of “becoming” because it implies the concept of “development.” Although Mori uses the word “becoming,” he implies “development” therein. As a result, the nature of human becoming is developed into the historicity of becoming. In this way, Mori dilutes the nature of becoming and attaches importance to its historicity.

     Today, pedagogy must focus on, the issue of the tension between history and nature in human becoming. On one hand, we must criticize Moriʼs focus on the historicity of human becoming and interpretation thereof as a theory of development; on the other hand, we must consider it problematic to attach importance to the nature of becoming while overlooking its historicity. In other words, the tension between history and nature in becoming must be thought of as tension. We must thus consider the tension between the perspective of the focus on human natural life and that of the focus on human historical life. Here, the issue is the tension between history and nature in human becoming as an unaddressed opportunity in Moriʼs educational anthropology.

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  • Takeshi OKUNO
    2020 Volume 87 Issue 3 Pages 379-390
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 09, 2021

     The syllabus for school physical training (1913), which united “normal physical training” and “military exercise,” was reorganized into three separate teaching materials, namely “gymnastics,” “drill,” and “games.” From the viewpoint of school military drills, “military exercise” was changed to “drill.” In this regard, the current paper aims to reveal the historical significance of this initiative.

     First, the article clarifies that the main objective of the army in uniting physical and military training was to revive the privilege of noncommissioned officers to become automatically licensed as physical training teachers. However, this movement was vetoed.

     Second, the article reveals that Nagai Dohmei (a member of the physical training investigative committee of the Ministry of Education), through observation in Europe and the United States of America, conceptualized the “drill” teaching material, which was included in lessons for first-year pupils in primary schools regardless of sex.

     Third, the paper establishes that the educational effect of the “military spirit,” as promoted by Nagai, was asserted by Mori Arinori. Therefore, the army was not the original source of the concept of cultivating a military spirit through “drill” exercises in schools.

     The study concludes that the reorganization from “military exercise” to “drill” in schools was accomplished through the initiative of the Ministry of Education rather than the army. In addition, the study reveals that “drill” was a reformation of the “military exercise” which was introduced by Mori Arinori from the perspective of education. This movement took place because the Ministry of Education did not permit the direct importation of the military into school education. Further, students of both sexes were included in “drill” and the target student age range was expanded, with educational effects expected.

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