Mass Spectrometry
Online ISSN : 2186-5116
Print ISSN : 2187-137X
ISSN-L : 2186-5116
Probe Electrospray Ionization (PESI) and Its Modified Versions: Dipping PESI (dPESI), Sheath-Flow PESI (sfPESI) and Adjustable sfPESI (ad-sfPESI)
Kenzo Hiraoka Osamu AriyadaDilshadbek T. UsmanovLee C. ChenSatoshi NinomiyaKentaro YoshimuraSen TakedaZhang YuMridul K. MandalHiroshi WadaStephanie Rankin-TurnerHiroshi Nonami
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2020 Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages A0092


In 2007, probe electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PESI/MS) was developed. In this technique, the needle is moved down along a vertical axis and the tip of the needle touched to the sample. After capturing the sample at the needle tip, the needle is then moved up and a high voltage is applied to the needle at the highest position to generate electrospray. Due to the discontinuous sampling followed by the generation of spontaneous electrospray, sequential and exhaustive electrospray takes place depending on the surface activity of the analytes. As modified versions of PESI, dipping PESI (dPESI), sheath-flow PESI (sfPESI) and adjustable sfPESI (ad-sfPESI) have been developed. These methods are complementary to each other and they can be applicable to surface and bulk analysis of various biological samples. In this article, the characteristics of these methods and their applications to real samples will be reviewed.

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© 2020 Kenzo Hiraoka, Osamu Ariyada, Dilshadbek T. Usmanov, Lee C. Chen, Satoshi Ninomiya, Kentaro Yoshimura, Sen Takeda, Zhang Yu, Mridul K. Mandal, Hiroshi Wada, Stephanie Rankin-Turner, and Hiroshi Nonami. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
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