2001 Volume 42 Issue 8 Pages 1667-1671
The nanocrystalline samples of zirconium oxide doped with ruthenium oxide (RuO2) have been synthesized from chlorides as precursors by chemical precipitation method. The as-prepared and annealed powder samples were studied by XRD, TEM and Impedance Spectroscopy. With 7.5 mol% of RuO2, only a small percentage of ZrO2 stabilizes in tetragonal form without stabilization in cubic form. With 9 mol% and above, ZrO2 stabilizes in mixed phases having both tetragonal and cubic structure. On annealing, up to 1273 K the proportion of the cubic phase increases; however annealing at temperatures above 1273 K makes the sample to become monoclinic. Average grain size, as determined by Scherrer’s formula using X-ray linewidth, increases with increase of annealing temperature. The same trend is observed in TEM studies. TEM studies show the agglomeration of grains. X-ray diffraction for various concentrations of RuO2 shows the presence of small amount of RuO2 as impurity. This implies that Ru4+ goes to the interstitial position also in addition to its occupation of substitutional position of Zr4+ due to its smaller ionic radius (0.062 nm) compared to that of Zr4+ (0.084 nm). The impedance spectroscopy measurement shows that the conductivity decreases with an increase of grain size. The phase changes in the stabilization process with different concentrations and annealing temperatures, and growth of grain size in RuO2 stabilized ZrO2 will be presented. One of the salient points in this study is stabilization of ZrO2 with RuO2 alone without Y2O3 as reported in the literature.