2004 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 765-775
Low temperature, Sn-based Pb-free solders were developed by making alloy additions to the starting material, 96.5Sn-3.5Ag (mass%). The melting behavior was determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The solder microstructure was evaluated by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Shear strength measurements, hardness tests, intermetallic compound (IMC) layer growth measurements, and solderability tests were performed on selected alloys. Three promising ternary alloy compositions and respective solidus temperatures were: 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi, 212°C; 87.5Sn-7.5Au-5.0Bi, 200°C; and 86.4Sn-5.1Ag-8.5Au, 205°C. A quaternary alloy had the composition 86.8Sn-3.2Ag-5.0Bi-5.0Au and solidus temperature of 194°C. The shear strength of this quaternary alloy was nearly twice that of the eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The 66Sn-5.0Ag-10Bi-5.0Au-10In-4.0Cu alloy had a solidus temperature of 178°C and good solderability on Cu. The lowest solidus temperature of 159°C was realized with the alloy 62Sn-5.0Ag-10Bi-4.0Au-10In-4.0Cu-5.0Ga. The contributing factor towards the melting point depression was the composition of the solid solution, Sn-based matrix phase of each solder.