2012 Volume 53 Issue 3 Pages 483-488
Die castings generally contain a large quantity of porosities due to the entrapment of air or gas in molten metal during mold filling. Although the entrapped air or gas is compressed by high casting pressure during pressurization, it will eventually remain in the castings as defects after solidification. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relation between the volume of gas defects and the pressure applied to the molten metal so as to optimize the casting design.
In this study, we investigated the compression behavior of entrapped gas during casting. We determined the volume of gas defects and gas content in die castings by density measurement and vacuum fusion extraction method respectively. Then we calculated the gas pressure in the defects from the above volume of defects and gas content, and compared with the die casting pressure. The calculated gas pressure in the defects was found to be not equal to the die casting pressure, but equal to the pressure of the molten metal just before it dropped abruptly due to the complete blocking of the liquid metal channel by solidification. From the experimental results, the behavior of the entrapped gas can be inferred as follows. Immediately after the mold was filled with molten metal, the entrapped gas was instantly compressed. After that, the pressure of molten metal decreased gradually with the progress of solidification of the molten metal channel, and the volume of entrapped gas increased correspondingly until the pressure of the molten metal dropped abruptly. Then the volume of the entrapped gas showed a slight expansion equal to the solidification shrinkage of the enclosed molten metal.
The above inference was verified by measuring the volume of the entrapped gas defects in castings made with intentional depressurization carried out at the time when mold filling just finished or halfway through the solidification of the molten metal channel.