2016 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages 15-00291
Recent experimental approaches were reviewed to the residual stress/strain in bone tissue using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. After a brief introduction of the experimental methods and obtained results, we discussed the generation mechanisms and biomechanical implications of the residual stress/strain in bone tissue. Strain gauge approaches provided the existence of residual stresses in the bone at the whole bone level. XRD approaches have also provided the existence of residual stresses at the tissue and mineral phase levels. The residual strains at the mineral phase related to the degree of orientation of the HAp crystals. The distributions of residual stress were obtained around the surface and along the radial depth of the diaphysis of quadrupedal extremities. The correlation between the residual stress and the osteon structures was indicated and the difference of residual stress with growth was revealed. It would appear that the residual stress state might be generated by the indeterminate structure in the hierarchical structures of the bone tissue relating to bone adaptation with the bone formation and reconstruction process. A long-term study is needed to better understand the generation and biomechanical implications of residual stress in bone tissue throughout the hierarchical structure during maturation and aging.