2007 Volume 47 Issue 7 Pages 299-306
This study was conducted to elucidate the pathologic conditions of cerebral circulatory disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Among 44 possible iNPH patients, 40 patients underwent shunt surgery based on diagnostic flow charts plotted by the Southern Tohoku method and were evaluated to be shunt-effective at the end of the first post-surgical month. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by N-isopropyl-(123I)-P-iodo-amphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (mean, mCBF; cortical region, cCBF; thalamus-basal ganglia region, tbCBF on autoradiography [ARG] method) and the perfusion patterns of the cerebral cortex were measured based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) Z-score images, before and 1 month after the surgery in all 40 subjects. The mCBF rose significantly from 32.1 ± 2.74 ml/100 g/min before surgery to 39.8 ± 3.02 ml/100 g/min after surgery (p < 0.03). Investigation of the change of CBF revealed reductions in the cCBF (3 cases), tbCBF (9 cases), and cCBF + tbCBF (28 cases), with the reduced-cCBF group totaling 31 cases and the reduced-tbCBF group totaling 37 cases. Investigation of cerebral cortex hypoperfusion by 3D-SSP Z-score revealed 31 cases with hypoperfusion (frontal lobe type [19 cases], occipitotemporal lobe type [5 cases], mixed type [7 cases]) and nine cases with cortical normoperfusion (N). The pattern of reduction of the cortical blood flow on ARG method was favorably correlated with the pattern of hypoperfusion of the cerebral cortex on 3D-SSP Z-score images before surgery. A reduction of blood flow was found in the thalamus-basal ganglia region of all N type cases. The blood flow improved in 19 of 31 (61.3%) cases of the reduced-cCBF group and in 32 of 37 (86.5%) cases of the reduced-tbCBF group. All of the cases without detectable improvement exhibited increased blood flow in non-reduction areas. Investigation of the hypoperfusion patterns of the cerebral cortex on 3D-SSP Z-score images, revealed a reduction or disappearance of the hypoperfusion site in 19 of 31 (61.3%) cases, either no-change or a shift of the hypoperfusion site in 12 of 31 (38.7%) cases, and a correlation between the pattern of cortical blood flow reduction on ARG method and the pattern of cerebral cortex hypoperfusion on 3D-SSP Z-score images after surgery. Cerebral circulatory disorders in iNPH manifest as either of two pathophysiological conditions: the “circulatory disorder of the cerebral cortical region” and the “circulatory disorder of the thalamus-basal ganglia region.” Various patterns develop according to the disease stage.