2019 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 133-146
The “cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation theory” of CSF flowing unidirectionally and circulating through the ventricles and subarachnoid space in a downward or upward fashion has been widely recognized. In this review, observations of CSF motion using different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are described, findings that are shared among these techniques are extracted, and CSF motion, as we currently understand it based on the results from the quantitative analysis of CSF motion, is discussed, along with a discussion of slower water molecule motion in the perivascular, paravascular, and brain parenchyma. Today, a shared consensus regarding CSF motion is being formed, as follows: CSF motion is not a circulatory flow, but a combination of various directions of flow in the ventricles and subarachnoid space, and the acceleration of CSF motion differs depending on the CSF space. It is now necessary to revise the currently held concept that CSF flows unidirectionally. Currently, water molecule motion in the order of centimeters per second can be detected with various MRI techniques. Thus, we need new MRI techniques with high-velocity sensitivity, such as in the order of 10 μm/s, to determine water molecule movement in the vessel wall, paravascular space, and brain parenchyma. In this paper, the authors review the previous and current concepts of CSF motion in the central nervous system using various MRI techniques.