Neurologia medico-chirurgica
Online ISSN : 1349-8029
Print ISSN : 0470-8105
ISSN-L : 0470-8105
Special Topic
Coagulopathy and Traumatic Brain Injury: Overview of New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies
Ryuta NAKAEYasuo MURAIAkio MORITAShoji YOKOBORI
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JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

2022 Volume 62 Issue 6 Pages 261-269

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Abstract

Coagulopathy is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury. Consumptive coagulopathy and secondary hyperfibrinolysis are associated with hypercoagulability. In addition, fibrinolytic pathways are hyperactivated as a result of vascular endothelial cell damage in the injured brain. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters change dynamically to reflect these pathologies. Fibrinogen is consumed and degraded after injury, with fibrinogen concentrations at their lowest 3-6 h after injury. Hypercoagulability causes increased fibrinolytic activity, and plasma levels of D-dimer increase immediately after traumatic brain injury, reaching a maximum at 3 h. Owing to disseminated intravascular coagulation in the presence of fibrinolysis, the bleeding tendency is highest within the first 3 h after injury, and often a condition called "talk and deteriorate" occurs. In neurointensive care, it is necessary to measure coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters such as fibrinogen and D-dimer routinely to predict and prevent the development of coagulopathy and its negative outcomes. Currently, the only evidence-based treatment for traumatic brain injury with coagulopathy is tranexamic acid in the subset of patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters should be closely monitored, and treatment should be considered on a patient-by-patient basis.

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© 2022 The Japan Neurosurgical Society

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