2019 Volume 96 Issue 2 Pages 49-56
Embryo implantation is an immunologically paradoxical event. In humans and rodents, blastocysts adhere to uterine epithelium and then invade into endometrial stroma, while maternal body is protected from extraneous materials by its immune system. Eosinophils, a kind of leucocytes involving parasitic infections and allergic response, increase in number in uterus when serum estrogen level is elevated during estrus cycles. However, response of uterine eosinophils to ovarian estrogen during peri-implantation period is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of eosinophils in murine peri-implantation uterus. On day 0.5 of pregnancy, eosinophils were found primarily in endometrial stroma near the luminal epithelium, whereas they were primarily distributed in basal endometrium and myometrium on day 3.5 of pregnancy. The number of uterine eosinophils on day 4.5 of pregnancy was significantly increased by inhibition of maternal estrogen action. Collectively, our results indicate that the ovarian estrogen negatively regulates uterine eosinophil distribution during peri-implantation period and provide insight into a role of maternal immune system in embryo implantation.