It is important to assess the general bone condition in dental implant treatment. The relationships between the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of lumbar vertebrae and mandibular cortical bone condition in the inferior border using multi-slice computed tomography (CT) were assessed in postmenopausal women. If a strong correlation between them is obtained, the mandibular cortical bone condition may be useful to evaluate the general bone condition. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were enrolled in this investigation. The maximum CT value and width of the mandibular cortical bone (MCW-MSCT) were measured, and the mandibular cortical bone index (MCI-MSCT) was classified using multi-slice CT. BMDs of lumbar vertebrae were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and then the percentage of the young adult mean (YAM) was analyzed. The correlations were investigated between the mandibular cortical bone condition and values of lumbar vertebrae. Weak correlations were observed between MCW-MSCT and the percentage of YAM. Also, significant differences in the percentage of YAM were noted between types of MCI-MSCT. The mandibular cortical bone index (MCI-MSCT) in the inferior border using multi-slice CT may be applicable to evaluate the influence of the general bone condition.
We cultured HMS0014 Yub621b cells within a 3D collagen gel scaffold (Cellmatrix Type I-A) and aimed to study the fate and contribution of human bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the guided bone regeneration(GBR)-engineered tissue which has developed around the titanium (Ti) test dental implant (IP) in vitro. The light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results of the peri-IP tissue indicated that collagen fibrils of the Cellmatrix Type I-A gel were accumulated and fabricated to provide a 3D meshwork for proliferation and differentiation of the HMS0014 cells in the top (cell) layer; mineralisation of the GBR tissue had commenced since day 1 and became markedly deposited between days 7 and 14 of the experiment. TEM observation revealed sedimentation of cement line at the periphery of the interwoven Cellmatrix fibres and fibrils in the ECM scaffold of the GBR tissue; matrix vesicle-mediated and appositional collagen-mediated mineralisation were identified in the peri-IP ECM scaffold. The fine structure study of the plurimorphic osteoblast(Ob)-like osteogeneic cells demonstrated numerous membranous organelles related with vesicular trafficking, secretion and endocytosis in the cytoplasm; well-developed cytoskeleton networks and intercellular junctional complexes were also observed. The specimens on fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) by confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) showed the expression of LC3 and Cx43 associated with autophagic-lysosomal degeneration pathway and signal conduction mediated with gap junctions (GJS) in maintaining tissue homeostasis of the Ob-like cells which grew and degenerated in the 3D scaffold. Results from this in vitro study suggest that Ob-like HMS0014 cells actively regulate turnover of the peri-IP ECM to recapitulate the development and formation of osteoid tissue-engineered material which might contribute to augment osseointegration around the dental implant.
In a student course of gross anatomy dissection at Kanagawa Dental University in 2009, we found an extremely rare case of the coexistence of the postaortic left brachiocephalic vein with the postaortic left renal vein of a 73-year-old Japanese male cadaver. The left brachiocephalic vein passes behind the ascending aorta and connects with the right brachiocephalic vein, and the left renal vein passes behind the abdominal aorta. These two anomalous cases mentioned above have been reported respectively. There have been few reports discussing coexistence of the postaortic left brachiocephalic vein with the postaortic left renal vein. We discuss the anatomical and embryological aspect of this anomaly with reference in the literature.