Background: The gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been described in various ways by anatomical texts and surgical manuals. Currently, there are no studies that have investigated the thickness and length of GEA using gross anatomical methods. In the present study, we measured the length, circumference, area, and major axis of GEA, and quantitatively evaluated the differences between right and left GEA (RGEA and LGEA), using gross anatomical and morphometric methods for the first time. Materials and Method: Seventeen cadavers were selected. The median age of the cadavers was 82 years. We observed and evaluated GEA with naked eyes, as well as under a stereoscopic microscope. Results: RGEA was significantly longer than LGEA (p < 0.0001). The mean length of RGEA and LGEA were 26.51 ± 5.15cm and 14.05 ± 3.12cm, respectively. The mean area of RGEA, LGEA, and the anastomotic point were 3.31 ± 1.71 mm2, 1.33 ± 1.01 mm2, and 0.51 ± 0.28 mm2 respectively. Conclusion: RGEA was significantly longer and thicker than LGEA. The results also showed that in almost all of the cases RGEA and LGEA anastomosed with each other and grew thinner as they approached the middle of the greater curvature of the stomach.
The maxillary incisive canals were observed in childhood from infancy to school-aged children to clarify their development. Cone-beam computed tomography was performed to investigate 44 dry child skulls. Two-dimensional images of various planes in the maxillary incisive canal were reconstructed on a computer using 3-dimensional visualization and measurement software. Then, antero-posterior angulation, and antero-posterior and lateral axes of the maxillary incisive canal were measured at the inferior and middle levels. The mean difference of angulation between the inferior and middle levels was 2.3 degrees in IIC, and 11.1 degrees in IIIC. The mean ratio of the lateral axis to antero-posterior axis at the middle level was 2.54 in IIC, and 1.93 in IIIC. In conclusion, it was antero-posteriorly straight from IA to IIC, and, after IIIA, it curved at the middle level. The cross-sectional shape in IIC was depressed with a larger lateral axis.
In order to elucidate the function of anti-aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC)-only-positive cells in the alimentary canal, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was intraperitoneally injected into the laboratory shrew, Suncus murinus, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on continuous sections of the alimentary canal using specific antisera against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), AADC, dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT). AADC-only-positive cells localized to the epithelial layer of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the large intestine. These AADC-only-positive cells became DA- and AADC-positive cells after L-DOPA injection, and 5-HT- and AADC-positive cells after 5-HTP injection. These results strongly indicate that the AADC-only-positive cells in the alimentary canal of Suncus murinus are capable of synthesizing DA and 5-HT simultaneously upon administration of L-DOPA and 5-HTP.
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