The Japanese Journal of Personality
Online ISSN : 1349-6174
Print ISSN : 1348-8406
ISSN-L : 1348-8406
Short Report
The Effect of Value–Cost Conflict on Persistence in Learning: A Cluster Analysis of Elementary School Students’ Motivation towards Science Learning
Masaki Kera
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2022 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 32-34


This study examined the patterns of positive task value and cost combinations among elementary school students by cluster analysis. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 140 students. The cluster analysis suggested three patterns: (a) the high motivation cluster reported high positive value and low cost regarding science; (b) the low motivation cluster reported low positive value and high cost regarding science; and (c) the motivational conflict cluster reported high levels of both. Further, one-way ANOVA revealed that the motivational conflict cluster had lower persistence in learning than the high motivation cluster.

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