In recent years, it has been suggested that mindfulness requires an ethics of caring and not harming (harm/care) to be effective. It has also been pointed that mindfulness can lead to detrimental consequences in the absence of harm/care. This study addressed proactive, aggressive behavior as a possible harmful behavior and examined the moderation effect of harm/care on the relationship between mindfulness and proactive aggression. A questionnaire survey on 179 college students was conducted. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that when harm/care was low, mindfulness was high, as was proactive aggression. The results suggest that mindfulness may be linked to harmful behaviors in the absence of harm/care. Therefore, it is recommended that future research examine the possibility of adverse events from mindfulness-based interventions.
Prosocial behavior is one of the soft skills that should be taught in schools to develop children’s positive relationships and improve their mental health. Some studies have focused on the motivation toward prosocial behavior to elucidate the outcomes of such good action. In this study, a prosocial motivation scale for Japanese early adolescence was developed within the framework of the self-determination theory. The survey participants were 1,017 seventh to ninth graders (age range=12–15, M=13.40, SD=0.96) in Japanese lower secondary school. Factor analyses demonstrate two dimensions of prosocial motivation, namely identified and controlled regulations. After assessing the reliability and validity of the scale, we refer to the sex-related differences in prosocial motivation cross-sectionally. This has implications for sex-related differences in prosocial behavior. Finally, the future direction and the limitation of the present study are discussed.
In this study we developed the Japanese version of the Relationship Profile Test and examined the relationship between its three subscales (destructive overdependence, dysfunctional detachment, and healthy dependency (HD)) and help-seeking behaviors and help-seeking styles among university students. Results showed that HD was positively related to help-seeking behaviors whereas dysfunctional detachment was negatively related to them. Destructive overdependence was positively related to an excessive help-seeking style. Dysfunctional detachment was negatively related to an excessive help-seeking style and positively related to an avoidant help-seeking style as well as a self-directed help-seeking style. HD was positively related to an excessive help-seeking style and a self-directed help-seeking style and negatively related to an avoidant help-seeking style. We also tested a hypothetical model which assumed that the link between HD and adaptation was mediated by help-seeking behaviors. The indirect effect of help-seeking behaviors was not significant. The results implied that the unique effect of HD predicted adaptation.
There is an increase in cases of children becoming victims of crime by strangers they meet online. We investigated the factors associated with children’s contact with strangers online. In this study, 639 children participated, and out of those who had devices with Internet access, 28.9% communicated with and 2.0% had actually met online strangers. Children who had communicated or met with the strangers perceived that they had less social support from parents and used many social networking sites. This suggests that their contact with strangers online is related to the feeling of being unable to rely on familiar others and lower resistance to contacting online strangers.
The tendency to think about things in terms of binary opposition is called dichotomous thinking. If dichotomous thinking is strong, it has an extreme response style, that is, to select extreme options in a questionnaire. In order to reduce the influence of dichotomous thinking on the responses to the questionnaire survey, we examined the scale structure (symmetric and asymmetric). A total of 218 undergraduate students responded to the questionnaires; either a symmetric or an asymmetric was used. Results indicated an interaction between the dichotomous belief and the asymmetric questionnaire. In other words, the existence of neutral items affects the tendency of responses by dichotomous thinking.