Since the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists have reported new types of depressive syndromes (NTD), which have different features from the traditional form of depression, that is, melancholic depression. Previous studies have reported that the Interpersonal Sensitivity/Privileged Self are personality traits related to NTD, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity/Privileged Self Scale was developed to measure them. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Interpersonal Sensitivity/Privileged Self generates interpersonal stress, thereby contributing to the development of depressive symptoms. This study employed a longitudinal method, with a sample of 116 undergraduates as participants. The results of the path analyses supported the hypothesis, which suggests that Interpersonal Sensitivity/Privileged Self influences depression, via interpersonal stress. These findings indicate that NTD can be explained by the stress generation model.
This study examined the circumplex structure of Japanese interpersonal trait words based on a psycho-lexical approach. Seven hundred and nineteen undergraduate students rated 259 interpersonal trait words in regard to how accurately these words described their personality; the data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The trait words were plotted on a two-dimensional space according to their conceptual similarity, which showed a circumplex structure with two orthogonal axes—Dominance and Affiliation—suggesting the cross-cultural validity of the circumplex structure of the interpersonal trait words. Extraversion trait words were located at almost the same position as in previous studies using languages other than Japanese. Agreeable trait words were located near the Affiliation axis, which requires further research. In conclusion, trait words may be useful for constructing an item pool of interpersonal traits in Japan.
This study examined two aspects of male university students. The first aspect was the degree of their parents’ expectations of male roles. Results showed that participants felt that both parents expected many new male roles, while fathers expected less traditional roles. The second aspect was regarding how participants’ attitudes were influenced by parents’ education level and employment type, and by participants’ perception of their parents’ male roles expectations. Results showed that participants’ attitudes were strongly influenced by their father’s educational level and employment type, and by their perception of their mother’s expectations. These findings suggest that men tend to follow their father in choices regarding work and life, while they are directly affected by their mother’s expectations regarding male roles. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The present study aimed to develop the Focusing on Strengths Scale for Children and to examine its reliability and validity. Participants comprised 487 children and adolescents from elementary and junior high schools. In line with the findings of a previous study, results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the scale comprised 2 factors, self-strengths (7 items) and other-strengths (8 items). In addition, the scale had acceptable reliability (internal consistency and retest reliability) and partial validity (structural and external validity). Adolescents reported lower scores on self-strengths than did children. Boys’ scores on other-strengths were lower than those of girls. Finally, the limitations of the present study and directions for future research were discussed.
The purposes of this study were: developing the Heteronomous Self-Esteem Scale in Domain-Specific Competences for Children (HSES-DSC-C), and examining its reliability and validity. Participants were 507 children (245 boys and 262 girls) in 4th to 6th grades, and their 18 homeroom teachers. The HSES-DSC-C was administered to the children twice, 5 to 6 weeks apart. In study 1, the reliability of the scale was examined, showing high Cronbach’s alphas (α=.90–.94) and test-retest reliability (ICC=.72–.82). In study 2, the homeroom teachers nominated children who had high or low characteristics of heteronomous self-esteem in each domain. Results revealed that children nominated for having high heteronomous self-esteem had significantly higher scale scores than those who were nominated as having low heteronomous self-esteem in each domain. Additionally, positive correlations between a scale assessing overall heteronomous self-esteem and the HSES-DSC-C were found. Through these studies, the current article developed the HSES-DSC-C with high reliability and validity.
We developed the Functions of the Autobiographical Memory in Shikohin inventory (FAMS) through two studies. In study 1, 581 participants recalled memories cued by Shikohin (coffee, tea, alcohol, and tobacco) and evaluated autobiographical memory functions using multiple items from the results of previous studies. Factor analysis verified that the FAMS had a four-factor (coping, nostalgia, direction of action, and positive emotions) structure and demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. The validity of the FAMS was also confirmed by high correlations between the Shikohin’s Psychological Effects Questionnaire and the FAMS, or the Thinking About Life Experiences and the FAMS. In study 2, 758 participants were divided into two groups. One group recalled memories cued by Shikohin, and the other group did not. Both groups then completed the FAMS. The group that recalled a memory had higher FAMS scores than the group that did not recall a memory.
This study examined the relationships between teachers’ learning motivation for subject instructions, strategies, and teaching skills. A questionnaire survey was conducted among teachers who had participated in teacher’s license renewal seminar (N=303). A path analysis revealed that teachers’ “intrinsic motivation,” “orientation toward children,” and “skill orientation” were positively associated with teaching skills, and these relations were mediated by a “planning and reflection” strategy. Additionally, an “ask colleagues” strategy mediated the relation between “orientation toward children” and “teaching skills.” These findings demonstrate that other-oriented motivation such as “orientation toward children” is very important for teachers.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between littering behavior and Dark Triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy). Forty-one college students (average age=19.83 years, SD=1.11; 9 males, 32 females) were assigned randomly into either a clean or a dirty laboratory condition, and participated in an experiment to assess their littering behavior. Results of Bayesian logistic regression analysis that predicted the littering index, indicated that cumulative probabilities that the odds ratio for narcissism and psychopathy exceed 1 in posterior distribution under dirty condition were 84% and 87%, respectively. The results of the present study showed that the Dark Triad personality traits may be related to littering behaviors, while previous studies focused on manipulations of condition.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between happiness, satisfaction, and the psychological effects of consuming “shikohin” at social events on psychological health. Five hundred and thirty-two participants (270 men, 262 women; mean age=44.91 years, SD=13.81 years) from a community sample in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba completed a set of questionnaires and the data were analyzed. The results of partial correlation analyses showed that when people experienced positive and negative social life events, the psychological effects of consuming “shikohin” showed a weak but positive correlation with happiness and satisfaction.
This study aimed to reinvestigate age differences in resilience in a large cross-sectional Japanese sample (N=18,843; 9,657 men, 9,156 women; meanage=47.74 years, SDage=14.89, rangeage=15–99 years). The data were obtained from a large cross-sectional study by NTT DATA Institute of Management Consulting, Inc. The results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that age and squared term of age were significantly positively associated with resilience. These results reconfirm that resilience in Japanese individuals increases with age, corroborating the findings of previous studies.