28 巻 (2012) 1 号 p. 21-
We studied about the non-woody plant diets of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including herbaceous plants, ferns, mushrooms, seaweeds, and animal matter, in order to make clear how many numbers of non-woody plant food items were eaten by the macaques all over across Japan. This is useful information for both fundamental and applied studies of this species. Through a web-searching using "Web of Science" and "Google scholar", we collected 266 data sets from 215 articles from 49 study sites. The macaques fed on 460 species of herbaceous plants (from 258 genus/67 family), 30 species of ferns (from 24 genus/15 family: 15), 61 species of fungi (from 42 genus/19 family), 3 species of moss (from 3 genus/3 family), and 11 species of seaweeds (from 11 genus/7 family), respectively. For the herbaceous plants and ferns, we also studied the parts eaten. Macaques mainly fed on leaves and stems of the herbaceous plants. This was different from that of woody plant diets, for which the macaques evenly fed on leaves, fruits, buds, bark, and flowers. On the other hand, the macaques fed on 136 animal species, mainly insects (108 species, from 103 genus/15 order). They fed on only a few numbers of vertebrates (reptiles, amphibias, fish, and birds). The macaques fed on soil in many study sites. If we add information from Tsuji et al. (2011) about woody plant diets studied most intensively, the macaques in total fed on 1,154 species of plants and animals, and 2,406 dietary items of these plants. We also discussed about the usefulness of reviewing previous descriptive data.