2022 Volume 10 Pages 155-167
This review presents the analysis of interrelating factors such as pH-parameter, mass content of connective tissue and lipids, proteolytic enzyme activity, as well as animal age, and their influence on the quality of farm-raised and hunted venison produced in New Zealand, Russia, and Spain. It was established that differences in meat shear stress observed between venison from different countries were not associated with stress at the time of slaughter. It was shown the presence of seasonal effects that compensate for the obvious after-stress effects. In general, the country of origin did not affect the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat, and the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids in venison of New Zealand and Russian production tended to increase. However, n-6/nFactor-3 of venison from all the countries was less than 4 in average values. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids, the content of total fatty acids and the n-6/n-3 ratio of animal fats obtained during winter hunting were higher than that of summer grazing deer. There was observed an effect of the country of origin and type of hunting on the amino acid profile of venison. Spanish and Russian venison contained more common essential and non-essential amino acids than New Zealand farm venison. In addition, the composition of venison produced in summer had a higher ratio of essential/non-essential amino acids than venison hunted in winter. Since the mineral composition of venison is closely related to the natural environment in which the deer grazes, the difference in mineral content is not related to the level of stress, but to seasonal changes and forage rations. It has been established that in summer venison contains less than half of the zinc needed as a part of alkaline phosphatase, which is an enzyme necessary for calcium deposition in bone tissue. The reason that may explain the seasonal difference is calcium and magnesium phosphate, which can replace calcium and form horns and bones.