Reviews in Agricultural Science
Online ISSN : 2187-090X
Current issue
Displaying 1-11 of 11 articles from this issue
  • Praveena Katharine S, Suguna Devakumari M
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 1-13
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: February 15, 2022
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    Sustainable use and management of fertilizers depend on the plant nutrition and fertilizer recommendation approaches. The Build-Up and Maintenance approaches are based on the concept of “Feed the soil and Feed the crop” where fertilizers are applied over the selected time period until nutrient levels are raised to the critical soil test levels, then applications are continued at a rate to maintain the nutrient levels to sustain that soil test. The common approach of fertilizer adjustments based on Soil test rating equates general or blanket recommendation to medium fertility status of soil available NPK. For soils testing low or high category, the fertilizer recommendations are increased or decreased by 30 per cent of the general recommendations. Nutrient recommendations through post-harvest soil test values prediction equations have much practical significance. The relevance and value of soil testing increases through yield targeting based fertilizer recommendations. Futuristic approaches like precision agriculture, use of GIS, GPS and RS, Cloud computing, and Big data are versatile components of plant nutrients / fertilizer recommendation. In these approaches, variability of conditions in each field is accounted for and fertilizer recommendation is made precisely so as to optimize the use of soil resources, increase yield, reduce production costs, minimize negative impacts to the environment and ensure optimum returns from its investment. Digital Ag and Big Data analytics bring new opportunities to yield optimization by precision fertilizer management.

  • Maria Theresia Sri Budiastuti, Djoko Purnomo, Desy Setyaningrum
    2021 Volume 10 Pages 14-23
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: March 15, 2022
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    Indonesia, as a country with a tropical climate, has a forest area of 94.1 million ha, and in 2019 deforestation reached 3,500,637.7 ha due to large-scale illegal logging for various activities. In addition, the area of primary forest has decreased over the last 15 years and is positively correlated with land degradation, carbon sequestration, and crop production. The low carbon sequestration capacity triggers global warming which has an impact on increasing the average temperature in Indonesia. Therefore, the restoration of forest functions to support ecosystem stability is the first step in forest management planning. The integration of trees and plants, namely agroforestry, is an option in the management of vegetation that is beneficial to the ecosystem. Tree-based farming systems have the capacity to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere above ground, such as trunks, branches, and leaves, and below ground, namely the root system. Agroforestry has three main functions, namely regulating rainwater (soil and water conservation), sequestering carbon (reducing the impact of global warming), and supporting the microclimate (crop production). These three functions are supported by vegetation. Agroforestry systems provide options to reduce the effects of global warming, increase crop yields, and support ecosystem stability. Thus, a well-managed and sustainable agroforestry system is the best vegetation management that can solve the problem of deforestation.

  • Hiromi Shimizu, Satoshi Iwamoto
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 24-35
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 15, 2022
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    In 2019, the market for ready-made meals in Japan has increased by 27% in the past ten years and was valued at around 10 trillion yen. Minced meat is one of the most convenient ingredients for ready-made meals because it can be used in a wide variety of dishes, either by itself, or in combination with other ingredients. Processes that are necessary to obtain minced meat increase the area in contact with air. Consequently, these processes can compromise the quality of minced meat products, which tend to be more damaged compared to chopped meat or steak. Therefore, it is necessary to select an appropriate processing method to prevent lipid oxidation in meat. Lipid oxidation is a major cause of meat deterioration. Several factors, such as the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, exposure to light and heat, and the presence of molecular oxygen as well as pro-oxidant and antioxidant components, affect lipid oxidation. Suppressing lipid oxidation is important for inhibiting the damage to meat products. Radical scavengers donate hydrogen to lipid radicals, stop the chain reaction, and suppress the progression of lipid oxidation. Chelating agents trap metal ions, thereby inhibiting the progress of lipid oxidation. Furthermore, a combination of the two methods to suppress lipid oxidation has also been reported. In light of this, combining chelating agents with other chemicals is expected to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  • Eng Huan Hau, Soek Sin Teh, Siok Koon Yeo, Bee Lin Chua, Siau Hui Mah
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 36-55
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 15, 2022
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    Oil palm is currently the world’s leading vegetable oil crop, with Indonesia and Malaysia as the two largest producers and exporters of palm oil in the world. In order to meet the demand for palm oil, the mills generate huge quantities of by-products causing an alarming concern on environmental impact. Hence, the effort to transform “waste to gold” is very crucial. This review focused on the extraction methods for holocellulose and lignin, as well as processing methods to produce value-added components such as nanoparticles, fermentable sugar, bioethanol, biochemicals, biofuel and phenolic compounds because the oil palm biomass (OPB) generated contain high amounts of nutritional or bioactive components. Processes such as chemical extractions, enzymatic hydrolysis, microorganism fermentation, organic solvent extractions and green extraction technology using deep eutectic solvents, protic ionic liquid, and supercritical fluid, were used to transform OPB into value-added bio-products for various industries especially food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries. Chemical extraction was crucial to extract cellulose and hemicellulose from the lignocellulosic material of OPB prior to other processing methods to produce a variety of valuable components. Sequential mild chemical extraction, cellulase cocktail hydrolysis, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and ethanol extraction successfully extracted OPB value-added components with improved physical and chemical properties.

  • Putri Wulandari Zainal, Fawzan Sigma Aurum, Teppei Imaizumi, Manasikan ...
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 56-67
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 15, 2022
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    Recently, metabolomics has grown rapidly in the fields of food and agriculture. Complex physiological changes after harvest prompted the development of a new metabolomic analytical method offering more profound insight into these changes. This review presents the feasibility of a metabolomics approach to elucidate physiological changes during ripening, senescence, and disorders. Additionally, we introduce metabolomics for the authentication of agricultural products. Confirmation of species, varieties, and geographical origin via metabolomics can be useful to tackle adulteration and certify quality.

  • Aqarab Husnain Gondal, Laaraib Tayyiba
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 68-81
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2022
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    Climate change and industrial farming activities have negative environmental consequences on living organisms that are of considerable significance to human health and are directly or indirectly linked to agriculture. Global agricultural systems are facing numerous unexpected threats in current diversified climate change era. However advanced technologies such as nanotechnology are a helpful method to improve crop production and ensure sustainability to achieve food security. Nanotechnologies have an extensive series of application in agriculture especially in term of crop production and crop protection. Nanotechnology has potential usages in all extents of the food industry and are capable of altering their taste, and color according to the dietary requirements of the consumer. One of the most promising mechanisms through which various nanomaterials can support to decontaminate water and other heavy metals. Nanomaterials help in the conversion of radioactive materials into less toxic compounds. Similarly, environmental remediation requires various methods for the elimination of contaminants from different media in which nanotechnologies are helpful. The article concluded that substantial studies have been carried out on the usage of nanomaterials in food systems; the commercialization of nanoscale-based foods requires further analysis. Efforts to enhance consumer understanding and approval of novel nano-based food and agricultural goods are also required. The present review also discusses the role of nanotechnology in agricultural products and their food security on a sustainable basis.

  • Majeed Hameed Ajafar, Alaa Hasan Kadhim, Tahreer Mohammed AL-Thuwaini
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 82-89
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2022
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    In farm animals, both genetic and non-genetic factors affect reproductive traits. These factors can be categorized as intrinsic and extrinsic. Extrinsic factors relate to the animal’s environment, while intrinsic factors are related to its genotype. Various reproductive traits are studied concerning age, season, management, nutrition, body score, and birth type. In addition, genetic variations of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily including BMPR-1B, BMP15, and GDF9 have been studied for their effect on sheep reproduction. Numerous other genes that affect reproductive characteristics in sheep have also been identified, including melatonin receptor 1A, SLC5A1, CCNA1, ABCC1, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), leptin receptor, prolactin, GREM1, and numerous other new candidates. These reproductive traits vary based on differences in environmental conditions and the genetic composition of livestock. Genetic and environmental factors that influence livestock traits can be improved by understanding those factors, but genetic and phenotypic associations that affect livestock traits are scarce. Accurate genetic evaluation and development of breeding goals require a more accurate evaluation of genetic parameters, in particular correlations with phenotypic traits. As a result, understanding how genetic and environmental factors interact becomes critical to developing efficient and effective management plans for sheep. This review provides insight into the factors that influence sheep reproductive performance.

  • Sugiharto Sugiharto
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 90-100
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2022
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    Agricultural activities have been connected to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane being the most GHGs emitted. Despite the fact that broiler production produces less GHG than other animal production farms, the broiler farm does emit GHG, with feed production and broiler excreta handling accounting for the majority of the emissions. It has been confirmed that fermenting and using agricultural byproducts as broiler feed ingredients reduces the use of energy- and protein-rich diets, and so reduces the carbon footprint. Feeding fermented agricultural byproducts to broilers improves feed digestibility and nutrient utilization (especially protein), hence reducing nitrogen excretion as a source of nitrous oxide. This review article provides a brief overview on the role of fermentation in improving the nutritional properties of agricultural byproducts and their use in diets to reduce the carbon footprint of broiler production.

  • Sowmya Ranganathapura Sathyanarayana, Warke Vishal Gangadhar, Mahajan ...
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 101-114
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2022
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    Agriculture has been the most common way of food resources for centuries, and it is also closely linked to food security, rural development, and poverty reduction. Traditionally, the soil has been thought to be the most important prerequisite for growing food crops, but hydroponics techniques are currently considered one of the most popular plant-growing systems around the world. Plants are grown in a soil-free environment with the appropriate fertilizer solution, exactly required water, and no pesticides. Hydroponics is classified into distinct systems based on the principles of operation. Hydroponics has been utilized as a standard method for many aspects of plant biology research employing various systems, automation, and operation control methods. Aside from promoting healthy plant growth, using hydroponics there are other various advantages, including year-round production, enhanced yields, quality, and environmental benefits. Much research has been conducted utilizing hydroponics to investigate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This agriculture system will aid in the advancement of technology as a mission for future generations to become a self-sustaining model, as it is a promising way in the face of a global food security crisis.

  • Tahreer Mohammed AL-Thuwaini
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 115-122
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2022
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    Adiponectin is a hormone that belongs to a group known as adipokines that white adipose tissue is a primary source of it. This hormone has multiple functions in livestock, including lipid metabolism, energy regulation, immunity, and insulin sensitivity, with energy metabolism and ovarian function being the most important. Adiponectin’s action is determined by its interactions with its receptors, including AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. These receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are found in multiple tissues, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, and other tissues. Besides, these receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonadotropin-releasing glands. Accordingly, adiponectin and its receptors are believed to affect livestock productivity and reproduction. Adiponectin promotes skeletal muscle proliferation by interacting with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) pathway, thereby influencing carcass characteristics (including meat marbling, ribeye muscle area, and carcass fat thickness). Besides, it appears to be related to mammal fertility because adiponectin is located on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is involved in mammal reproductive functions. However, the physiological action of adiponectin in livestock needs to be clarified. It is crucial to investigate the association of adiponectin with productive and reproductive traits in livestock. This review summarizes the adiponectin effects on productivity along with reproductive traits in livestock.

  • Cicih Sugianti, Teppei Imaizumi, Manasikan Thammawong, Kohei Nakano
    2022 Volume 10 Pages 123-137
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 15, 2022
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    Postharvest technology plays a vital role in preserving fruits. In particular, banana is a climacteric fruit with a short shelf-life; thus, good postharvest practice through the supply chain is essential to maintaining its quality. Prior to applying proper postharvest technology, it is important to understand the physiological changes in banana during the ripening process. This review describes the physiological characteristics of banana after harvesting as well as the technologies being studied and adopted practically to achieve postharvest goals. The discussion herein highlights the critical quality control points in the banana supply chain, e.g., storage, artificial ripening, and transportation. By assembling the current knowledge, this review could contribute on quality improvement through applying the proper postharvest technologies.

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