Dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is one of the most popular fruit products in East Asia, but its properties and consumer acceptance strongly depend on the drying process and storage conditions that are used. The quality of dried persimmon depends on its physical (color, texture) and chemical (tannin levels, sugar content, the presence of white powder on the surface) properties, which are drastically affected by the decrease in moisture content and composition changes that occur during the drying process and storage. Therefore, in the present report, the changes in the physico-chemical properties of dried persimmon that occur during the drying process and its quality degradation during storage are reviewed for providing fundamental information on the production of high-quality dried persimmon and storage management.
In physiological condition, avian sperm can be stored within the sperm storage tubules of female reproductive tract and may able to fertilize eggs up to 15 weeks. The long-term viability and fertilizing ability of sperm is reduced when avian sperm are stored in vitro conditions. The motility, viability and fertilizing ability of avian sperm depends on in vitro storage conditions. Many factors can affect in vitro sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability such as storage temperature, pH of extenders, osmolarity, sperm dilution rate, and seminal plasma. Researchers are trying to extend longevity of avian sperm during in vitro condition by applying the knowledge of in vivo sperm storage mechanism(s) and sperm biology. This paper reviews the sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability of main poultry species stored in vitro conditions. This study will help to understand a scenario of in vitro avian sperm motility, viability and their fertilizing ability.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful approach to identify the genetic factors underlying the intraspecific phenotypic variations. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology, including next generation sequencing has enabled us to easily genotype high density genome-wide SNPs. In addition, many accessions of various plant species have been widely collected in recent years. These genetic resources have made GWAS a markedly more popular approach for investigation of natural variations occurring in various traits using large populations. In addition to genotyping technology, advances in high-throughput phenotyping technologies have enabled us to acquire variation data on a large number of accessions characterized for various traits, including not only the field traits (e.g., yield and disease resistance) but also molecular traits (e.g., gene expression level and metabolite content). Thus, it is possible to expand the range of application of GWAS and enhance the detection power of genomic association. In this review, we summarize recent GWAS of various agronomic traits at field and molecular scale, following which we highlight the integration approach involving GWAS and high-throughput phenotyping technologies including transcriptome, ionome and metabolome.
Slope stability is always one of the greatest issues of concern in geotechnical engineering. In slope stability analyses, the residual strength of slip zones is one of the most important parameters for understanding the reactivation mechanisms and for evaluating the stability of slopes. The kinds of soils, the situations of the soils, and the test conditions are the three main aspects that affect the residual strength. Among the test conditions, the selection of the shear testing apparatus, the normal stress, the overconsolidation ratio, the shear rate, and the acceleration are the main critical factors that affect the residual strength of soils. This paper firstly presents a systematic literature review of the factors that influence the residual strength of soils under certain test conditions, which can help obtain the residual strength accurately and easily in a geotechnical research. The paper also summarizes the available indexes, such as the Atterberg limits, for determining the residual strength. Moreover, this paper highlights future research challenges with an aim to clarify the effect of acceleration on the residual strength in a wider range which has not been well researched, but which needs to be explored further.
Pythium species are soil-borne pathogens which can cause serious economic loss worldwide and threatening agricultural production. Traditional management methods like chemical fungicides are effective against Pythium spp. But as people pay more attention to human health and environmental issues, alternative methods that are ecofriendly and harmless to health are urgently needed. Currently, various approaches had been made including using natural extract, regulating planting conditions, using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and screening disease tolerance plants. Hereby, we review the recent achievements, particularly chemical and physical methods, biocontrol and host plant defense which can be used to control Pythium disease.