2022 Volume 10 Pages 186-205
The purpose of the review was to analyze soil pollution with various chemical compounds of silver (oxides, sulfides, nitrates, nanoparticles) and the ecotoxic effect on the response of microbiological indicators, enzymatic activity, initial growth, and development of plants to soil pollution. The objectives of the study were to analyze modern literature sources, versus to data on chemical compounds, silver concentrations, and duration of exposure. The analytical review is devoted to the presentation and analysis of the ecotoxicity of chemical compounds of silver (Ag) for animals, plants, and soil. It has been established that the main anthropogenic sources of Ag pollution of the environment, including soils, are emissions from thermal power plants when burning coal, the operation of non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy enterprises, cement plants, waste storage at solid waste landfills, the production of photographic and electrical materials, the use of pesticides, and the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. The published values for the Ag content in contaminated soil range from 8 to 35 mg/kg, and in soils of ore deposits up to 7000 mg/kg. The negative effect of Ag is manifested in a decrease in the length of roots and biomass of plants, suppression of the growth and reproduction of earthworms, a decrease in the number of soil bacteria, and inhibition of the activity of soil enzymes. It is concluded that it is necessary to conduct experiments aimed at assessing the consequences of the entry of various chemical compounds of Ag into soils and ecosystems. The duration of experiments is from days to a year, when using concentrations of oxide, sulfide, nitrate, and nanoparticles of Ag more than 0.5 mg/kg. It is advisable to develop maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and approximate permissible concentrations (APCs) for Ag chemical compounds in the soil.