2004 年 113 巻 9 号 p. 1528-1563
This paper is an attempt to describe how the French educational system developed in local society during the nineteenth century, by examining the role and offer of secular private secondary schools for boys (pensions and institutions) in Lyon. The study of secular private schools, which have not yet been sufficiently analyzed by the historians, should give us the opportunity to reexamine two of the best-known episodes in the history of modern French education : the conflict between church and state ; and the division between secondary education and primary education. First of all, the author reveals an important place occupied by secular private schools in the French secondary educational field. By the 1860's, about thirty percent of the students who received secondary education attended these schools. While a student took Latin and Greek during the full eight to ten years in public schools (lycees or colleges), secular private schools, independent of Universite in practice, could provide him with more diversified curricula : for example, technical education suitable to employment in commerce, industry and agriculture, lessons in several modern languages and science, and preparatory classes for a baccalaureat or the Advanced Engineering Schools (Grandes Ecoles). Furthermore, by limiting the number of students, secular private schools offered a religious and familial environment. Responding to the growing demands of the industrializing society, they contributed not only to completing public education that could not keep up with the development of society, but also to presenting modern educational models to Universite. Secondly, the author underlines the fact that it was only at the end of the nineteenth century that primary and secondary education were sharply divided along institutional lines. Although secular private secondary schools were officially recognized as secondary schools, they were in fact mostly "primary-secondary" mixed schools. In other words, they had two different curriculums : a primary curriculum for the students who needed more "practical" education than a classical and humanistic one, and a secondary curriculum to prepare students for the baccalaureat. Therefore, some schools could be, in practice, considered as upper primary schools (ecoles primaries superieures). Finally, the author concludes that the decline of secular private schools was caused not only by the powerful rise of religious private schools, but also by the reform and further development of the public educational system during the last half of the nineteenth century, like the establishment of special secondary education(1865), and the realization of free, compulsory, secular primary and free upper primary schools(1880's).