1989 年 38 巻 p. 100-110,262-26
The self-control of the mass media is an autonomous act required by the social responsibility which accompanies the "freedom of expression". Through the practice of such self-control, the mass media responds to the recipients "right to know", ensures their confidence, and eliminates the unwarranted interference of public powers. It has been said that the idea of the "freedom and responsibility of the press" was born in Great Britfin and America during the closing years of World War II. In Japan, Freedom of the press was established by the General Headquarters of the Allied Forces (GHQ) after Japan's defeat, and it is included in the "fmeedom of expression" guaranteed by ohe Japanese Constituton. In this, the GHQ played a significant role. The Report of the American Commission on the Freedom of the Press and the recommendations of the British Royal Commission on the Press also had a considerable influence in this area. This paper presents a general survey of the ways in which the self-control of the mass redia has been shaped and practiced-including both merits and demerits-as a result of the media's beisg caught between the interference of public power and social criticism during the forty some years since the end of World War II. Finally, with an eye towards the future, the paper raises several problems which must be addressed.