The progress of brain-imaging research casts doubt on a theory that the degree of brain-lateralization defines sex differences in cognitive strength patterns, i.e., men excel at spatial ability and math, and women excel at verbal fluency and language abilities. Meta-analyses reported that previously believed anatomical brain sex-differences, including the thickness of the corpus callosum, were not replicated. However, findings did not completely exclude the existence of brain/cognitive sex differences. The author reviews recent trends in this debate and covers new evidence that bridges the biological and cultural approaches, including “stereotype threat” investigations for explaining the STEM gender gap. The importance of both defining the scope of interest and dissecting various elements that relate to manifestations of socio-behavioral patterns is stressed.