Today, it is assumed that men are expected to fulfill not only traditional male roles (e.g., breadwinner) but also new less traditional roles (e.g., household chores). However, the tasks involved in constructs of these new male roles are unclear. This article focused not only on traditional male roles but also on new ones, and it tried to organize them by analyzing previous research in order to define each task and the new theoretical framework of male roles. Traditional male roles, which have been researched in depth abroad, were organized by five concepts: high social status; psychological and physical strength; high agency; low effeminacy; and superiority to women. New male roles, which have become more known recently, were organized by four concepts: commitment to household responsibility; emancipation from emotional restriction and need for toughness; high communion; and attentiveness to women. Based on these categories, I proposed four domains for comprehensive male roles: family; psychological and physical strength; being a desirable person; and behavior toward women. From these, I discussed the future issues that research on male roles should address.