2002 年 47 巻 1 号 p. 73-89,204
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the process of, and condition for, the creation of cultural types in elite middle schools in Japan. We approached the problem by constructing an artificial "space" of elite middle schools from many samples collected by the questionnaires given to Kyoto University freshman in 2000, and then analyzed the data mainly by three types of school: public, private-inside-promotion ( I ) and private-halfway-admission ( U ).
What has been demonstrated in this analysis is that the cultural gap between private schools is greater than that between public and private. By comparison with students in private group II , private type I students have parents that are better educated and take more active interest in cultural activities such as reading and hobbies. As success-minded newcomers, students of private type II devote themselves to preparing for the entrance examination. On the other hand, the members of public group are more social-minded and have more attachment to their own school than those of the private school groups.
Based on these results, we can define a new conceptualization of three types of culture : "superior" (yutosei), "versatile" (shumijin) and "grinder" (jukensei). This provides us with a valid framework for both static-structural and historical-dynamic analyses, as follows.
In the Showa 40's (1965-74) of popularized competition, high-ranking schools were spotlighted and added to prestige. They maintained a comparatively culturalminded tendency that had already been declining in college. During this period, we can find two historical prototypes for cultural typology. The envelopment-model is the form of the old era, where virtually all members were of the idealized versatile type.Differentiation-model is the first form of the new era, where all the versatile differentiated themselves from the emergent realistic grinder. But they share certain similarities in the tacit pressure of ignoring any competition for entrance examination.
This envelopment / differentiation mechanism is likely to operate at the present six year private schools. It is the reason why there are many versatile students but they have ambivalent attitudes toward their own school.