2021 年 31 巻 1 号 p. 1_41-1_52
Managers of community sports clubs need the ability to set their own goals and create communities through sports even without any specific solutions. Such a goal-creating approach requires the learning design to create a challenge that encourages learners to spontaneously structure their knowledge. With regard to the knowledge structuring, it is said that the adaptive experts who are capable of responding to new situations by using their knowledge and skills flexibly and adaptably are superior to the routine experts who can quickly solve only familiar problems. In addition, it is also said that the achievements required in any organizations depend on not only the organizational challenges, including organizational climate and decision-making system, but also the individual challenges related to competence, job proficiency, and self-efficacy. This study compared how knowledge structuring and learning is performed in the two types of staff training systems based on organizational and individual challenges, respectively. As a result, there are possibilities that 1) in the individual challenge-based training, extracting issues is easier than in the organizational challenge-based training. In addition, it has also become clear that 2) in the organizational challenge-based training, the community sports club activities tend to be considered as an occupation or duty, while more awareness is focused on self-growth in the individual challenge-based training.