Effects of an individual in a team on group cohesiveness and group efficacy were investigated. Personal factors, including life skills and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were focused on. The model was developed based on the above concepts, and covariance structure analysis was conducted. Participants (N=545, mean age=20.12yr, SD=1.08yr) were members of eight university soccer clubs. To test the model, covariance structure analysis was conducted with life skills factors as independent variables, OCB factors as mediated factors, and recognition of group cohesiveness and group efficacy as dependent variables. Results indicated: (1) all goodness of fit indices showed values indicating sufficient fitness of the model to data (GFI=.92, AGFI=.90, CFI=.94, RMSEA=.06), (2) “communication,” which is one life skills factor, had a direct positive effect on recognition of group cohesiveness and group efficacy (β=.34, β=.15, p＜.001 for both), and (3) all life skills factors had significant positive effects on recognition of group cohesiveness and group efficacy, mediated by OCB factors. The above results suggest that life skills of individuals in a team might have positive effects on the recognition of group cohesiveness and group efficacy, mediated by OCB of team members.
Purpose: Sport coaching skill sharing (SCSS) has emerged as a recent trend in the wider sharing economy. Therefore, people who are too busy to work out or practice sports are more likely to join physical training programs. However, detailed information, such as the number of SCSS users and the characteristics of potential users, is not available. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the actual usage of SCSS and to examine the estimated population of potential users and their characteristics. Methods: An internet survey was conducted among people aged 20 to 69 years who work out or practice sports more than once a year. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with the intention of using SCSS as the dependent variable and demographic factors as the independent variables. Results: The results show that 1.5% of the effective sample (2,953 subjects) had experienced SCSS and that about 12,692,000 potential users had never used SCSS but intended to do so. Typically, potential users of SCSS are in their 20s (OR=3.31, 95% CI: 2.43-4.50) or 30s (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.51-2.77), hold a bachelor’s or master’s degree (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74), are self-employed or have a family business (OR=2.07, 95% CI: 1.39-3.08), are employed as managers or professional and technical workers (OR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.14-2.42), have household annual income of 5 to 8 million JPY (OR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.20-2.42) or 8 to 10 million JPY (OR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.04-2.32), and work out or practice sports more than once a week (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.40-2.11)., Conclusion: Targeting people with these characteristics is suggested as an effective approach to popularize the service.
One of the issues in community sports is the need to recruit and develop instructors, and the shortage of young instructors is becoming more acute every year. Despite the fact that enjoyment is a crucial factor in the continuation of volunteer activities and sports instruction as a “supporting sports”, few studies have examined the enjoyment of community sports as “suppoting sports”. The purpose of this study was to clarify the enjoyment of a university-run community sports classes program for children as a “supporting sport” by focusing on the perspectives of the university students who instructed the class. At the end of each of the university-run community sports classes, students who instructed the community sports classes were asked to provide comments regarding their enjoyment of the class. Category analysis of these descriptions was performed using the KJ Method, and terms extraction and co-occurrence network analysis was performed using KH Coder. As a result of categorizing the descriptions, it was assumed that the enjoyment of the university-run community sports classes as a “supporting sports” is that the implementation of the “program” generates “involvement” and “reaction”. It is believed that suggesting the enjoyment of “supporting sports” to university students, who have been involved in sports mainly as “playing sports,” will lead to the presentation of diverse involvement with sports and its appeal, and will contribute to the development of community sports.
Managers of community sports clubs need the ability to set their own goals and create communities through sports even without any specific solutions. Such a goal-creating approach requires the learning design to create a challenge that encourages learners to spontaneously structure their knowledge. With regard to the knowledge structuring, it is said that the adaptive experts who are capable of responding to new situations by using their knowledge and skills flexibly and adaptably are superior to the routine experts who can quickly solve only familiar problems. In addition, it is also said that the achievements required in any organizations depend on not only the organizational challenges, including organizational climate and decision-making system, but also the individual challenges related to competence, job proficiency, and self-efficacy. This study compared how knowledge structuring and learning is performed in the two types of staff training systems based on organizational and individual challenges, respectively. As a result, there are possibilities that 1) in the individual challenge-based training, extracting issues is easier than in the organizational challenge-based training. In addition, it has also become clear that 2) in the organizational challenge-based training, the community sports club activities tend to be considered as an occupation or duty, while more awareness is focused on self-growth in the individual challenge-based training.
Attracting participants to events such as marathon leads to expectations of increased socio-economic benefits within the host region. Furthermore, the classification of runners is important for continued running of such events, while participants’ sense of attachment to these events is also critical to repeat participation. The spotlight of this research was on the classification of three types of self-assessment type runners who focus on the concept of running involvement-related recreation specialization, while our aim was to show a correlation between runners’ self-assessments and sense of attachment to these events. The response rate was 247 runners. The relationship between self-assessment types and the event attachment to such events—addiction to events and sense of identity through events—showed a difference between the two senses of event attachment among type 3 of runners (casual, active and committed). Further examination revealed that committed runners showed higher averages of both factors, compared to other groups.
The image of sports is important because it is relevant to sports practice as adults. We examined the effects of adolescent extracurricular sports experience on university freshmen’s image concerning sports. University freshmen in the Tokyo area (N=81, and N=79) participated in two retrospective surveys using different measures. In Study 1, we asked participants to list positive and negative aspects of sports, and in Study 2, we asked them to list three words associated with sports and evaluate the desirability of these words. Results indicated that playing sports has a positive overall image. Social function and personal growth were listed more often than physical health as positive aspects of sports. Students who experienced extracurricular sports listed other merits besides physical health resulting from their experience, suggesting that they gained different advantages. The physical burden was most often listed as a negative aspect of sports by students with and without extracurricular sports experiences. Moreover, over one-third of the participants responded “none” to the question about the image of sports, reflecting their positive attitude about sports. The analysis of words associated with sports also indicated the overall positive image of sports. Also, students with extracurricular sports experiences had more positive images of sports than students without such experiences. However, students who participated in sports club activities more often had a more negative image of sports than students with less frequent participation in club activities, suggesting that too many sports activities might reduce intrinsic motivation. These results are discussed from the perspective of club activity management.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the recognition of marathon finishers for the benefit of the Japan Association of Athletics Federations (JAAF) certified races. It's necessary to be a member of JAAF for an athlete to participate in the JAAF certified meets. But it isn’t necessary to be a member of JAAF to participate in the road races. So runners can choose to be JAAF membership or not. But the revenue from membership fees is one of the key financial resources for National Federations. So it’s important for JAAF to expand the number of runners having JAAF membership. And it is necessary to clarify the benefits of JAAF certified races and to make attractive suggestions for runners. In this survey, we made questions about images and benefit of JAAF certified races, and asked 245 runners about thrm. Answers to questions are classified into 4 groups, according to finish time of runners : Sub-3 hours, Sub-4 hours, Sub-5 hours, Over-5 hours. Over 90% runners thought JAAF certified races were positive. And regardless of the times of the runners, they recognized value in the accurate times and distances of JAAF permit races. Therefore, compared to the non-permit races, the role of the JAAF certified races is to provide runners with accurate results. The faster runners, who have Sub-3 hours and Sub-4 hours times, recognize value the race of Semi Elite races, in order to meet qualifying standards. That provides high motivation to the faster runners. So it is necessary to consider a policy which makes Semi Elite races activated.
In Japan, philanthropic activities conducted by elite athletes play important roles in community development and disaster relief. Many athletes have engaged in these activities, such as giving lectures about sports and making site visits. However, little effort has been made to examine the nature of athletes’ charitable activities that focus on society and community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the forms of philanthropic activities conducted by elite athletes. The units of analysis for this study were stories reported in Japanese nationwide newspapers. The articles’ collection period ranged from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2019. Articles containing philanthropic activities conducted by elite athletes were searched for, using keywords including “athlete and philanthropy,” “sport player and philanthropy,” and “sport and philanthropy.” Following the procedure described above, 498 articles were obtained. Based on the content analysis, we found 9 forms of activities that athletes have implemented to contribute to society and community-based causes. Athletes conducted a broad range of philanthropic activities; both tangible and intangible activities were identified. The results from this study indicate that the popularity of athletes can help society and community-based causes through philanthropic activities, such as conducting monetary and non-monetary donations, providing psychological support, and attracting public attention towards society and community-based issues. In summary, this study has provided initial insights into philanthropic activities conducted by elite athletes in Japan.
The purpose of this research was to clarify the factors related with student satisfaction and the requirements for career development for Japan’s first English sport management graduate program that fosters international sport managers, and the ideal graduate program necessary to develop human resources who can play an active role as leaders in the international sport world in Japan. A chi-square test was performed by cross tabulating each factor to clarify the relationship between “total satisfaction” and “satisfaction” of individual categories, “total career necessity”, and “career necessity” of individual categories according to the results of the TIAS graduate survey. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the satisfaction level of the subjects in Olympic and Paralympic education and a common ground between the high group and the non-high group of total satisfaction of the graduates as a factor that affects satisfaction level. In addition, for services other than lecture content, there was a significant difference in terms of “Quality of lectures”, “Opportunities for good communication with lecturers” and “High academic support for lecture’s students”, which also represent high and non-high groups of overall satisfaction. Conversely, from the viewpoint of the career requirements of graduates, the content of the lectures differs from the satisfaction of graduates, and all lectures in the “Sport management field” have a significant difference between the high group and the non-high group of comprehensive career requirements. In addition, for services other than lecture content, unlike the results obtained regarding satisfaction, there was also a significant difference in the quality of opportunity provision between the high and the non-high group overall career needs groups and “Quality of external collaboration”, “Quality of industry network”, “Quality of students”, “Quality of administrative service” and “Quality of providing career opportunities”.