The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Regular Contributions
Historical Trends in Human Serum Levels of Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Shenyang, China
Yihe JinNorimitsu SaitoKouji H. HaradaKayoko InoueAkio Koizumi
Author information

Volume 212 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 63-70

Download PDF (535K) Contact us

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are widespread contaminants in the environment, as well as in wildlife and in humans. The PFOS and PFOA concentrations were determined in historical human serum samples collected in Shenyang, China, in 1987 (n = 15), 1990 (n = 33), 1999 (n = 68) and 2002 (n = 119). The serum donors were students, faculty members and university workers. Since the serum PFOA and PFOS levels did not follow a normal or log-normal distribution, a nonparametric method was applied to analyze the historical trends. For the total male and female subjects, the median level of serum PFOA increased significantly from 0.08 μg/l in 1987 to 4.3 μg/l in 2002 (p < 0.05), while the median level of serum PFOS also increased significantly from 0.03 μg/l in 1987 to 22.4 μg/l in 2002 (p < 0.05). Both the serum PFOA and PFOS levels continued to increase from 1999 to 2002, with remarkable increases observed in females: 6.3-fold increase for PFOA and 13-fold increase for PFOS. In 2002, serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations of female subjects have increased to 4.9 μg/l and 22.4 μg/l in median, respectively, which are comparable to those in U.S.A. and Japan. For male subjects, serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations (1.6 μg/l and 8.3 μg/l in median, respectively) are comparable to those in Italy. The data from this study indicate that females are likely to experience higher exposure to these chemicals.

Information related to the author
© 2007 Tohoku University Medical Press
Previous article Next article

Recently visited articles
  • About this Journal
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM) was founded in 1920 by professors of Tohoku Imperial University, Medical School. The TJEM has been published continuously, except for the year of 1946 just after the World War II. The TJEM is open to original articles in all branches of medical sciences. The TJEM also covers the fields of disaster-prevention science, including earthquake archeology.

  • Submitted manuscripts will be screened for plagiarism with Similarity Check (
Journal news & Announcements
  • Subscriptions
    Inland subscriptions should be sent to Tohoku University Medical Press, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, JAPAN.

    Subscriptions from abroad should be addressed to MARUZEN CO., LTD., EXPORT DEPARTMENT, Postal address: P.O.Box 75, Shinagawa, Tokyo 140-8799, JAPAN.