The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Current issue
June
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
Regular Contribution
  • Eiko Onishi, Toshihiro Wagatsuma, Shizuha Yabuki, Yutaro Arata, Masano ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 81-87
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 26, 2024
    Advance online publication: June 06, 2024
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    Simulation practice is known to be effective in anesthesiology education. In our simulation practice of general anesthesia for open cholecystectomy at the Tohoku University simulation center, we projected a surgical video onto a mannequin’s abdomen. In this observational study, we investigated whether video-linked simulation practice improved students’ performance. We retrospectively compared the general anesthesia simulation practice scores of fifth-year medical students in a video-linked or conventional group. In the simulation practice, we evaluated the performance of each group in three sections: perioperative analgesia, intraoperative bleeding, and arrhythmia caused by abdominal irrigation. The primary endpoint was the total score of the simulation practice. The secondary endpoints were their scores on each section. We also investigated the amount of bleeding that caused an initial action and the amount of bleeding when they began to transfuse. The video group had significantly higher total scores than the conventional group (7.5 [5-10] vs. 5.5 [4-8], p = 0.00956). For the perioperative analgesia and arrhythmia sections, students in the video group responded appropriately to surgical pain. In the intraoperative bleeding section, students in both groups scored similarly. The amount of bleeding that caused initial action was significantly lower in the video group (200 mL [200-300]) than in the conventional group (400 mL [200-500]) (p = 0.00056).Simulation practice with surgical video projection improved student performance. By projecting surgical videos, students could practice in a more realistic environment similar to an actual case.

  • Xianxian Fu, Yanyan Xiong, Renjin Tang, Xuelin Li, Hong Liu, Xiaowei R ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 89-95
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 01, 2024
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    The catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a prerequisite for malignant transformation of human cells. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor. The genetic association of hTERT gene rs2853669 and rs2736098 polymorphisms with CRC was surveyed in the Chinese population. Two hundreds patients with CRC and 200 healthy controls were taken for blood sample collection. Sanger sequencing was applied for genotyping. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, and odds ratio (OR) together with confidence interval (CI) were calculated to obtain the corresponding association power. Among CRC cases (49.50%), hTERT gene rs2736098 GA genotype carriers were more prevalent compared with the control group (41.00%, P = 0.035), which increased the risk of CRC by 1.576 times (95% CI, 1.031-2.409). Distribution of the rs2736098 genotypes was significantly associated with TNM stage, tumor differentiation, tumor size and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The frequencies of hTERT gene rs2853669 polymorphism were not significantly different between CRC patients and healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis indicated that both body mass index (BMI) and hTERT gene rs2736098 polymorphism remained significantly correlated with CRC susceptibility. The frequencies of hTERT gene rs2853669 polymorphism did not differ significantly between CRC patients and control group (P > 0.05). The hTERT gene rs2736098 polymorphism was correlated with CRC risk in the Chinese Han population, and the GA genotype was a risk element for the onset of CRC.

Case
  • Yuhi Takagi, Yuji Kano, Takashi Oda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yuko Ono, Shigemi ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 97-104
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
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    The concept of infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) has been introduced as adults diagnosed with glomerulonephritis often have coexisting active infections. Furthermore, IgA-dominant IRGN is associated with staphylococcal infections in adults with comorbidities, which often progress to end-stage renal disease. Little is known about IgA-dominant IRGN in children, and no consensus for a management strategy of this condition has been reached. We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with IgA-dominant IRGN that was diagnosed using specific staining for nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr)/plasmin activity and galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1), a marker of IgA nephropathy. The patient was successfully treated using a combination of prednisolone, mizoribine (an immunosuppressive drug), and lisinopril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) and three courses of methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The patient was admitted to our hospital with generalized edema, gross hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. Hypocomplementemia contributed to a diagnosis of IRGN, although the causative organism was unknown. A renal biopsy performed when the patient presented with nephrotic syndrome showed IgA deposition, positive staining for NAPlr, and negative staining for Gd-IgA1, in addition to findings consistent with IRGN, leading to a pathologic diagnosis of IgA-dominant IRGN. The histological staining for NAPlr/plasmin activity and Gd-IgA1, together with clinical symptoms, could be helpful for diagnosing IgA-dominant IRGN. Our findings indicate that otherwise healthy children can also develop IgA-dominant IRGN. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment should be considered when IgA-dominant IRGN is suspected to avoid the possibility of incomplete recovery of renal function.

Regular Contribution
  • Po-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ling Lin, Hui-Wen Lin, Sheng-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Heng Li
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 105-113
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 22, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    High-intensity statin (HIS) is recommended for high-risk patients in current guidelines. However, the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) with HIS is a concern for Asians. Pitavastatin carries pharmacological differences compared with other statins. We compared the risk of HS in patients treated with pitavastatin-ezetimibe vs. HIS. We conducted a population-based, propensity score–matched cohort study using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From January 2013 to December 2018, adults (≥ 18 years) who received pitavastatin 2-4 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day (combination group, N = 3,767) and those who received atorvastatin 40 mg/day or rosuvastatin 20 mg/day (HIS group, N = 37,670) were enrolled. The primary endpoint was HS. We also assessed the difference of a composite safety endpoint of hepatitis or myopathy requiring hospitalization and new-onset diabetes mellitus. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between study endpoints and different treatment. After a mean follow-up of 3.05 ± 1.66 years, less HS occurred in combination group (0.74%) than in HIS group (1.35%) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.95]. In subgroup analysis, the lower risk of HS in combination group was consistent among all pre-specified subgroups. There was no significant difference of the composite safety endpoint between the 2 groups (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.02). In conclusion, pitavastatin-ezetimibe combination treatment had less HS compared with high-intensity atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Pitavastatin-ezetimibe may be a favorable choice for Asians who need strict lipid control but with concern of HS.

  • Kazuhiro Nomura, Tomotaka Hemmi, Mitsuru Sugawara, Ryoukichi Ikeda
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 115-121
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 14, 2024
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    Conventional coronal CT scans of paranasal sinuses, aligned perpendicularly to the nasal floor, often deviate significantly from the endoscopic view during sinus surgery. This discrepancy complicates the interpretation of anatomical structures. In response, we propose the utilization of anteriorly tilted coronal CT slices to enhance anatomical understanding. These slices align more closely with the endoscopic view, fostering an intuitive grasp of paranasal sinus anatomy. This study aims to quantify the tilt of the endoscope to the nasal floor during endoscopic sinus surgery. To figure out the tilt of the endoscopically true coronal slices, we calculated the tilt of the endoscope to the nasal floor in the operative setting by taking pictures of the operation and measuring the image and sagittal CT. Fourteen patients (25 sides of paranasal sinuses) were analyzed. Endoscope tilts to the nasal floor were measured at different anatomical landmarks: 16.2 ± 9.7 degrees (lower edge of ground lamella), 29.8 ± 7.9 degrees (central ground lamella), 62.3 ± 10.1 degrees (most superior part), and 25.6 ± 7.0 degrees (optic canal). In conclusion, we showed the actual tilt of the endoscope to the nasal floor during endoscopic sinus surgery. A 30-degree anteriorly tilted coronal scan for frontal recess and sphenoid sinus is more intuitive than a traditional coronal scan, which helps surgeons understand the complex sinus anatomy.

  • Xue Wang, Haiyan Nie, Mi Su, Yang Wu, Qianyin Pang, Youjin Zhang, Chua ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 123-131
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: July 09, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 04, 2024
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    The relationships of serum circNIPSNAP3A and circHIPK3 with metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) remain to be clarified. Three hundred and thirty-eight subjects were categorized into normal coronary artery, atherosclerosis and CAD groups. Clinical data including anthropometric indexes, medical history, and physiological and biochemical parameters were collected. Serum circNIPSNAP3A and circHIPK3 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. CAD severity was evaluated by clinical manifestation, electrocardiogram and coronary angiography. Both CAD and atherosclerosis groups had a higher serum level of circNIPSNAP3A than the normal coronary artery group (P < 0.05 for all). The subjects with a high percentage (> 66th percentile) of circNIPSNAP3A had higher mean levels of triglycerides, uric acid and homocysteine, and lower mean levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI than those with a low percentage (< 33rd percentile) of circNIPSNAP3A. Notably, circNIPSNAP3A is significantly and independently associated with CAD, and subjects with a high percentage of circNIPSNAP3A had more diseased coronary branches and a higher incidence of acute coronary syndrome than those with a low percentage of circNIPSNAP3A. Regarding circHIPK3, subjects with a medium or high percentage of circHIPK3 had a lower mean level of apolipoprotein AI than those with a low percentage of circHIPK3, but no significant differences in the incidence and severity of CAD among the < 33rd, 33rd-66th, and > 66th percentiles of circHIPK3 were detected. Serum circNIPSNAP3A is related to cardiovascular risk factors and CAD severity, and may be a potential prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target for CAD.

  • Risa Kajita, Haruna Takahashi, Satoshi Yoshino, Shunichi Matsumoto, Ka ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 133-139
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: July 09, 2024
    Advance online publication: May 02, 2024
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    Genetic factors, particularly human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, are known to significantly influence the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Additionally, patients with T1D often develop autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Despite this association, comprehensive research on individuals with both AITD and T1D in Japan, especially regarding the influence of specific HLA alleles, remains insufficient. In this retrospective study, we analyzed 44 inpatients diagnosed with T1D. These patients were predominantly female, with an average onset age of 35 years, poor blood sugar control, and approximately 43.2% had concurrent AITD. We observed significant associations of HLA-DRB1*04:05, HLA-DRB1*09:01 and HLA-DRB1*15:02 alleles with T1D regardless of AITD presence, which had been previously established for T1D in Japanese. In this context, comparing Japanese patients with AITD alone, we noted AITD comorbidity with T1D results in alterations in the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*09:01, HLA-DRB1*04:03, and HLA-DRB1*15:02. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*04:05, HLA-DRB1*09:01, HLA-DRB1*13:02, and HLA-DRB1*15:01 alleles may be alleles whose susceptibility varies for both conditions. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the relationship between T1D, AITD, and HLA genetics, which may inform personalized treatment strategies and facilitate the development of targeted therapies. Future research endeavors should aim to elucidate underlying mechanisms and validate these findings in larger cohorts.

  • Yong Chen, Yadan Tu, Lei Du, Ruixue Nan, Yi Ren
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 141-150
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: July 11, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2024
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    Warming Yang promoting blood circulation and diuresis (WYPBD) has been proven effective in treating some diseases. This study aimed to evaluate therapeutic effect of WYPBD in treating chronic heart failure (CHF). CHF rats were established by intraperitoneally injecting doxorubicin (DOX). Therapeutic effects of WYPBD on cardiac function and hemodynamic parameters of myocardial tissues were analyzed. Collagen fiber production and myocardial fibrosis were evaluated. Transcriptions of COL1A1 gene, COL3A1 gene, and TGFB1 gene were evaluated with RT-PCR. Expression of BNP, AVP, PARP, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 in myocardial tissues were evaluated. TUNEL assay was used to identify apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. WYPBD alleviated degree of myocardial hypertrophy in CHF rats compared to the rats in CHF model group (P < 0.05). WYPBD significantly improved cardiac hemodynamics (increased LVEF and LVSF) of CHF rats compared to rats in the CHF model group (P < 0.05). WYPBD protected myocardial structure and inhibited collagen fiber production in myocardial tissues of CHF rats. WYPBD markedly decreased myocardial fibrosis mediators (Col1α, Col3α, TGF-β1) transcription in myocardial tissues of CHF rats compared to rats in CHF model group (P < 0.05). WYPBD significantly reduced BNP and AVP expression in myocardial tissues of CHF rats compared to rats in the CHF model group (P < 0.05). WYPBD markedly reduced the expression of PRAP and caspase-3, and increased Bcl-2 expression in myocardial tissues of CHF rats compared to rats in the CHF model group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, WYPBD alleviated CHF myocardial damage by inhibiting collagen fiber and myocardial fibrosis, attenuating apoptosis associated with the mitochondria signaling pathway of cardiomyocytes.

  • Kota Sato, Yuto Sasaki, Michiko Ohno-Oishi, Kuniyuki Kano, Junken Aoki ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 151-160
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: July 18, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 04, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Activated microglia contribute to many neuroinflammatory diseases in the central nervous system. In this study, we attempted to identify an anti-inflammatory compound that could suppress microglial activation. We performed high-throughput screening with a chemical library developed at our institute. We performed a luciferase assay of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reporter stable HT22 cells and identified a compound that was confirmed to inhibit the anti-inflammatory response in BV2 microglial cells. The selected dihydropyridine derivative can suppress the expression response of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), as well as NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and reduce the intracellular calcium level. Thus, our identified compound has a potential role in suppressing microglial activation and may contribute to the development of a new therapeutic molecule against neuroinflammatory diseases.

  • Katsunori Iijima, Kenta Watanabe, Yosuke Shimodaira, Shigeto Koizumi, ...
    2024 Volume 263 Issue 2 Pages 161-168
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: July 18, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 25, 2024
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    The long-term impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the disruption of gastrointestinal cancer diagnoses remains unclear. This study investigated the actual impact on esophagogastric cancer (EGC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnoses up to the third year of the pandemic in Akita Prefecture, Japan, using population-based registry data. We collected data on the annual number of EGC and CRC diagnoses using a database from the collaborative Akita Prefecture hospital-based registration. The net number of cancers diagnosed in the first three years of the pandemic (2020-2022) were compared with those diagnosed in the three years before the pandemic (2017-2019). Changes in the proportion of cancer stage and initial treatment for diagnosed EGC and CRC after the pandemic were then compared. The total number of EGCs was 9.3% lower in the first three years of the pandemic than in the three years before, probably due to its long-term declining trend. The total number of CRCs in the first three years of the pandemic exceeded that in the three years before, suggesting successful recovery of the diagnostic procedure. The proportion of cancer stages and initial treatment for EGCs and CRCs remained largely unchanged after the onset of the pandemic. Based on the population-based registry data from the first three years of the pandemic, the disruption of gastrointestinal cancer diagnoses caused by the pandemic is settling down without any substantial disease progression, even in Akita Prefecture, the area with the highest incidence of cancer in all of Japan.

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