2019 Volume 247 Issue 1 Pages 1-12
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been introduced recently and has significantly impacted morbidity and mortality, but can also engender drug resistance. To identify the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) among patients with antiretroviral therapy failure in Sichuan during the period from 2010 to 2016, we carried out a longitudinal study in Sichuan, a province with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence in China. The data and blood samples were collected from HIV/AIDS patients who received ART for more than half a year. Overall 5,512 sequences were completed from 7,059 ART-failure patients, and 2,499 individuals were identified as drug resistant. Among those with HIVDR mutations identified, 25.37% were against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and 1.60% was against nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTI-resistant drugs were mainly lamivudine (3TC) (57.77%) and emtricitabine (FTC), while NNRTI-resistant drugs were mainly nevirapine (NVP) (91.13%) and efavirenz (EFV) (72.81%). The most common recombination subtypes of HIV-1 in sequenced samples were CRF07_BC (circulating recombinant form, CRF) (41.42%), followed by CRF01_AE (40.77%). Moreover, drug resistance rate increased with the prolongation of treatment time (χ2 = 14.758, P < 0.05). The overall prevalence of acquired drug resistance in HIV-1 infected patients in Sichuan was 5.47%, which has remained relatively stable from 2010 to 2016. HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC subtypes were the main epidemic strains, and the possibility of resistance was higher in CRF01_AE subtypes. The current study highlights the importance of acquired drug resistance surveillance over a long period.