2019 年 249 巻 3 号 p. 193-201
Postprandial glucose concentration is dependent on the time of day and its concentration in the morning is lower than in the evening. However, whether it is dependent on mastication at different times of the day has not been studied before. We hypothesized that mastication affects insulin-mediated glucose metabolism differently in the morning and evening in healthy individuals. Firstly, nine healthy male volunteers (22.0 ± 0.7 SEM years, body mass index 22.0 ± 1.0 kg/m2) performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). One week after the OGTT, they participated in a high-carbohydrate food (rice) consumption test with 10 or 40 chews per mouthful. Each experiment was conducted in the morning (0800 h) and evening (2000 h) on the same day. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals for 120 min after glucose or rice consumption. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose in the OGTT was significantly lower in the morning than in the evening, whereas the iAUC for insulin was similar at both times. In participants who chewed 40 times, the iAUC for glucose after rice consumption was significantly lower in the morning than in the evening but was similar at both times in individuals who chewed 10 times. Chewing 40 times in the morning (but not the evening) significantly increased insulin secretion at 30 min. This suggests that morning mastication improves early-phase insulin secretion after rice consumption. This novel finding may aid in reducing the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.