2015 Volume E98.B Issue 9 Pages 1906-1913
User context and user location in particular play an important role in location-based services (LBS). The location can be determined by various positioning methods. These are typically evaluated with average positioning error or percentile values, which are not the most suitable metrics for evaluation of how a positioning method functions in the semantic space. Therefore, we propose a new method for evaluation of positioning accuracy in the semantic space. We focus on two types of semantic user locations that are widely available in urban areas: the street address and the categories of the surrounding points of interest (POIs). We demonstrate its use on ten different positioning methods: a standalone satellite navigation device, GPS module on a smartphone, two versions of Foursquare positioning service, Google positioning service, a positioning service of the local mobile operator, and four other possible variants of mobile operator-based positioning methods. The evaluation suggests that approach with the street addresses is more promising approach due to either sparse or unevenly distributed POIs. Furthermore, some of the positioning methods that are less accurate in Euclidean space, such as a combination of the GPS data with the mobile operator-based method that relies on the propagation models, performed comparably well in the semantic space as the methods that are using more accurate technologies, such as Google and Foursquare.