This paper discusses key technologies specific for fifth generation (5G) cellular systems which are expected to connect internet of things (IoT) based vertical sectors. Because services for 5G will be expanded drastically, from information transfer services to mission critical and massive connection IoT connection services for vertical sectors, and requirement for cellular systems becomes quite different compared to that of fourth generation (4G) systems, after explanation for the service and technical trends for 5G, key wireless access technologies will be discussed, especially, from the view point of what is new and how import. In addition to the introduction of new technologies for wireless access, flexibility of networking is also discussed because it can cope with QoS support services, especially to cope with end-to-end latency constraint conditions. Therefore, this paper also discuss flexible network configuration using mobile edge computing (MEC) based on software defined network (SDN) and network slicing.
In order to support user data rates of Gbps and above in the fifth generation (5G) communication systems, millimeter wave (mm-wave) communication is proposed as one of the most important enabling technologies. In this paper, we consider the spectrum bands shared by 5G cellular base stations (BS) and some existing networks, such as WiGig and proposed a method for spectrally efficient coexistence of multiple interfering BSs through adaptive self-organized beam scheduling. These BSs might use multiple radio access technologies belonging to multiple operators and are deployed in the unlicensed bands, such as 60GHz. Different from the recently emerging coexistence scenarios in the unlicensed 5GHz band, where the proposed methods are based on omni-directional transmission, beamforming needs to be employed in mm-wave bands to combat the high path loss problem. The proposed method is concerned with this new scenario of communication in the unlicensed bands where (a) beam-forming is mandatory to combat severe path loss, (b) without optimal scheduling of beams mutual interference could be severe due to the possibility of beam-collisions, (c) unlike LTE which users time-frequency resource blocks, a new resource, i.e., the beam direction, is used as mandatory feature. We propose in this paper a novel multi-RAT coexistence mechanism where neighbouring 5G BSs, each serving their own associated users, schedule their beam configurations in a self-organized manner such that their own utility function, e.g. spectral efficiency, is maximized. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and it is shown via simulations that our proposed distributed algorithms yield a comparable spectral efficiency for the entire networks as that using an exhaustive search, which requires global coordination among coexisting RATs and also has a much higher algorithmic complexity.
In this paper, the recent advances in cooperative distributed antenna transmission (CDAT) are introduced for spatial diversity and multi-user spatial multiplexing in 5G mobile communications network. CDAT is an advanced version of the coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission. Space-time block coded transmit diversity (STBC-TD) for spatial diversity and minimum mean square error filtering combined with singular value decomposition (MMSE-SVD) for multi-user spatial multiplexing are described under the presence of co-channel interference from adjacent macro-cells. Blind selected mapping (blind SLM) which requires no side information transmission is introduced in order to suppress the increased peak-to-average signal power ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signals when CDAT is applied. Some computer simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of CDAT techniques.
Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system offers high rate transmission and/or support of a large number of users by invoking the power of a large array antenna, but one of its problem is the heavy computational burden required for the design and signal processing. Assuming the utilization of a large array in the transmitter side and much fewer users than the maximum possible value, this paper first presents a subarray based design approach of MIMO system with a low computational load taking into account efficient subarray grouping for the realization of higher performance; a large transmit array is first divided into subarrays based on channel gain or channel correlation, then block diagonalization is applied to each of them, and finally a large array weight is reconstructed by maximal ratio combining (MRC). In addition, the extension of the proposed method to two-stage design is studied in order to support a larger number of users; in the process of reconstruction to a large array, subarrays are again divided into groups, and block diagonalization is applied to those subarray groups. Through computer simulations, it is shown that the both channel gain and correlation based grouping strategies are effective under certain conditions, and that the number of supported users can be increased by two-stage design if certain level of performance degradation is acceptable.
Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is one of the key enablers in the fifth generation mobile communications (5G), in order to accommodate growing traffic demands and to utilize higher super high frequency (SHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF) bands. In the paper, we propose a novel transmit precoding named “nonlinear block multi-diagonalization (NL-BMD) precoding” for multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) downlink toward 5G. Our NL-BMD precoding strategy is composed of two essential techniques: block multi-diagonalization (BMD) and adjacent inter-user interference pre-cancellation (IUI-PC). First, as an extension of the conventional block diagonalization (BD) method, the linear BMD precoder for the desired user is computed to incorporate a predetermined number of interfering users, in order to ensure extra degrees of freedom at the transmit array even after null steering. Additionally, adjacent IUI-PC, as a nonlinear operation, is introduced to manage the residual interference partially allowed in BMD computation, with effectively-reduced numerical complexity. It is revealed through computer simulations that the proposed NL-BMD precoding yields up to 67% performance improvement in average sum-rate spectral efficiency and enables large-capacity transmission regardless of the user distribution, compared with the conventional BD precoding.
Hybrid analog/digital precoding has attracted growing attention for millimeter wave (mmWave) communications, since it can support multi-stream data transmission with limited hardware cost. A main challenge in implementing hybrid precoding is that the channels will exhibit frequency-selective fading due to the large bandwidth. To this end, we propose a practical hybrid precoding scheme with finite-resolution phase shifters by leveraging the correlation among the subchannels. Furthermore, we utilize the sparse feature of the mmWave channels to design a low-complexity algorithm to realize the proposed hybrid precoding, which can avoid the complication of the high-dimensionality eigenvalue decomposition. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid precoding can approach the performance of unconstrained fully-digital precoding but with low hardware cost and computational complexity.
This paper presents indoor and outdoor experiments that confirm 4-Gbps throughput based on 400-MHz bandwidth transmission when applying carrier aggregation (CA) with 4 component carriers (CCs) and 4-by-4 single-user multiple-in multiple-out multiplexing (MIMO) in the 15-GHz frequency band in the downlink of 5G cellular radio access. A new radio interface with time division duplexing (TDD) and radio access based on orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is implemented in a 5G testbed to confirm ultra-high speed transmission with low latency. The indoor experiment in an entrance hall shows that the peak throughput is 4.3Gbps in front of the base station (BS) antenna where the reference signal received power (RSRP) is -40dBm although the channel correlation at user equipment (UE) antenna is 0.8. The outdoor experiment in an open-space parking area shows that the peak throughput is 2.8Gbps in front of a BS antenna with a high RSRP although rank 2 is selected due to the high channel correlation. The results also show that the average throughput of 2Gbps is achieved 120m from the BS antenna. In a courtyard enclosed by building walls, 3.6Gbps is achieved in an outdoor-to-outdoor environment with a high RSRP and in an outdoor-to-indoor environment where the RSRP is lower due to the penetration loss of glass windows, but the multipath rich environment contributes to realizing the low channel correlation.
This paper presents outdoor field experimental results to clarify the 4-by-4 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) throughput performance when applying joint transmission (JT) and distributed MIMO to the 15-GHz frequency band in the downlink of a 5G cellular radio access system. Experimental results for JT in a 100m × 70m large-cell scenario show that throughput improvement of up to 10% is achieved in most of the area and the peak data rate is improved from 2.8Gbps to 3.7Gbps. Based on analysis of the reference signal received power (RSRP) and channel correlation, we find that the RSRP is improved in lower RSRP areas, and that the channel correlation is improved in higher RSRP areas. These improvements contribute to higher throughput performance. The advantage of distributed MIMO and JT are compared in a 20m × 20m small-cell scenario. The throughput improvement of 70% and throughput exceeding 5 Gbps were achieved when applying distributed MIMO due to the improvement in the channel correlation. When applying JT, the RSRP is improved; however the channel correlation is not. As a result, there is no improvement in the throughput performance in the area. Finally, the relationship between the transmission point (TP) allocation and the direction of user equipment (UE) antenna arrangement is investigated. Two TP positions at 90 and 180deg. from each other are shown to be advantageous in terms of the throughput performance with different direction of UE antenna arrangement. Thus, we conclude that JT and distributed MIMO are promising technologies for the 5G radio access system that can compensate for the propagation loss and channel correlation in high frequency bands.
This paper presents some results of an experimental trial for the 5th generation (5G) wireless communication systems using 28GHz band. In order to tackle rapidly increasing traffic for 2020 and beyond, new radio access networks for the 5G mobile communication systems will introduce the use of higher frequency bands such as spectra higher than 10GHz to achieve higher capacity and super high bit rate transmission of several tens of Gbps. The target of this experimental trial is to evaluate the feasibility of using the 28GHz band with super-wide bandwidth of 800MHz for 5G wireless communication systems. To compensate large path-loss in higher frequency, the beamforming (BF) based on Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is one of promising techniques and can be combined with spatial multiplexing of multiple data streams to achieve much higher capacity. In addition, to support the mobility of mobile station (MS), beam tracking technique is important. In this trial, we first conduct a basic experiment of single-stream transmission by using prototype system with base station (BS) having 96-element antenna and MS having 8-element antenna to evaluate the effectiveness of joint transmitter/receiver BF in 28GHz band in terms of coverage, impact of path loss, shadowing loss and penetration loss under indoor, outdoor and outdoor-to-indoor (O-to-I) environments. We show that by using 28 GHz band with BF based on Massive MIMO, higher throughput near 1.2Gbps can be achieved at many points in the indoor environment. It is also shown that the throughput of over 1Gbps can be achieved at points around 200m distant from BS in outdoor line-of-site (LOS) environment. Secondly, to evaluate the effectiveness of spatial multiplexing and beam tracking under more realistic environment, we also conduct the outdoor experiment of BF combined with 2-stream spatial multiplexing in high mobility environment with MS speed of up to 60km/h by using smartphone-shape MS antenna. We also show that maximum throughput of 3.77Gbps can be achieved with MS speed of 60km/h by using BF with 2-stream multiplexing and beam tracking.
This paper presents beamforming and beam tracking techniques and downlink performance results from field experiments using a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) system. The PoC implements a 5G mobile radio access system in the millimeter wave band and utilizes beamforming and beam tracking techniques. These techniques are realized with a dielectric lens antenna fed by a switched antenna feeder array. The half-power beamwidth of the antenna is 3° corresponding to massive MIMO using approximately 1000 antenna elements. The system bandwidth is 1GHz and the center frequency is 73.5GHz. Adaptive modulation and coding using four modulation and coding schemes is implemented. The field experiment is conducted in the following small cell environments: a courtyard, a shopping mall and a street canyon. The majority of the test area is Line-Of-Sight (LOS) however the shopping mall course contains 69% Non-LOS (NLOS) conditions. The results show that the maximum throughput of over 2Gbps using rate 7/8 coded 16QAM modulation is achieved in 87%, 34% and 28% of each of the respective environments. The beam tracking achieves high availability of coverage and seamless mobility not only in LOS environments but also under NLOS conditions through the reflected paths.
Detecting signals in a very large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system requires high complexy of implementation. Thus, belief propagation based detection has been studied recently because of its low complexity. When the transmitted signal sequence is encoded using a channel code decodable by a factor-graph-based algorithm, MIMO signal detection and channel decoding can be combined in a single factor graph. In this paper, a low density parity check (LDPC) coded MIMO system is considered, and two types of factor graphs: bipartite and tripartite graphs are compared. The former updates the log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) values at MIMO detection and parity checking simultaneously. On the other hand, the latter performs the updates alternatively. Simulation results show that the tripartite graph achieves faster convergence and slightly better bit error rate performance. In addition, it is confirmed that the LLR damping in LDPC decoding is important for a stable convergence.
Recently, much progress has been made in the study of belief propagation (BP) based signal detection with large-scale factor graphs. When we apply the BP algorithm to equalization in a SISO multipath channel, the corresponding factor graph has many short loops and patterns in an edge connection/strength. Thus, proper convergence may not be achieved. In general, the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) oscillates in ill-converged cases. Therefore, LLR oscillation avoidance is important for BP-based equalization. In this paper, we propose applying node selection (NS) to prevent the LLR from oscillating. The NS extends the loop length virtually by a serial LLR update. Thus, some performance improvement is expected. Simulation results show that the error floor is significantly reduced by NS in the uncoded case and that the NS works very well in the coded case.
In the future, 5G radio access and support for the internet of things (IoT) is becoming more important, which is called machine type communications. Different from current mobile communication systems, machine type communications generates relatively small packets. In order to support such small packets with high reliability, channel coding techniques are inevitable. One of the most effective channel codes in such conditions is the tail-biting convolutional code, since it is used in LTE systems due to its good performance for small packet sizes. By employing a list Viterbi algorithm for the tail-biting convolutional code, the block error rate (BLER) performances is further improved. Therefore, this paper evaluates the BLER performances of several list Viterbi algorithms, i.e., circular parallel list Viterbi algorithm (CPLVA), per stage CPLVA (PSCPLVA), and successive state and sequence estimation (SSSE). In the evaluation, computational complexity is also taken into account. It is shown that the performance of the CPLVA is better in the wide range of computational complexity defined in this paper.
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a promising multiple access scheme for further improving the spectrum efficiency compared to orthogonal multiple access (OMA) in the 5th Generation (5G) mobile communication systems. As inter-user interference cancellers for NOMA, two kinds of receiver structures are considered. One is the reduced complexity-maximum likelihood receiver (R-ML) and the other is the codeword level interference canceller (CWIC). In this paper, we show that the R-ML is superior to the CWIC in terms of scheduling flexibility. In addition, we propose a link to system (L2S) mapping scheme for the R-ML to conduct a system level evaluation, and show that the proposed scheme accurately predicts the block error rate (BLER) performance of the R-ML. The proposed L2S mapping scheme also demonstrates that the system level throughput performance of the R-ML is higher than that for the CWIC thanks to the scheduling flexibility.
As the most compelling candidate for 5G, millimeter-wave communication has drawn considerable interest, despite the absence of systematic research on its performance. Therefore, this study investigates millimeter-wave cellular networks and their use of existing frequency reuse schemes and scheduling methods. To evaluate the performance of these networks, we configure a system-level simulator that reflects the eNodeB architecture and frame structure designed to overcome the millimeter-wave frequency characteristics of the Giga Korea Project. Simulations conducted using various combinations of frequency reuse schemes and scheduling methods are described. We found that the best performing radio resource management scheme changes according to the number of user equipment accessing the eNodeB. The results of this study will contribute to performance estimations of the capacity and fairness of cellular-based millimeter-wave communication systems before they are deployed.
This paper proposes a new user association method to maximize the downlink system throughput in a cellular network, where the system throughput is defined based on (p,α)-proportional fairness. The proposed method assumes a fully decentralized approach, which is practical in a real system as complicated inter-base station (BS) cooperation is not required. In the proposed method, each BS periodically and individually broadcasts supplemental information regarding its bandwidth allocation to newly connected users. Assisted by this information, each user calculates the expected throughput that will be obtained by connecting to the respective BSs. Each user terminal feeds back the metric for user association to the temporally best BS, which represents a relative increase in throughput through re-association to that BS. Based on the reported metrics from multiple users, each BS individually updates the user association. The proposed method gives a general framework for optimal user association for (p,α)-proportional fairness-based system throughput maximization and is especially effective in heterogeneous cellular networks where low transmission-power pico BSs overlay a high transmission-power macro BS. Computer simulation results show that the proposed method maximizes the system throughput from the viewpoint of the given (p,α)-proportional fairness.
This paper proposes a proportional fair-based joint optimization method for user association and the bandwidth ratio of protected radio resources exclusively used by pico base stations (BSs) for inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) in heterogeneous networks where low transmission-power pico BSs overlay a high transmission-power macro BS. The proposed method employs an iterative algorithm, in which the user association process for a given bandwidth ratio of protected radio resources and the bandwidth ratio control of protected radio resources for a given user association are applied alternately and repeatedly up to convergence. For user association, we use our previously reported decentralized iterative user association method based on the feedback information of each individual user assisted by a small amount of broadcast information from the respective BSs. Based on numerical results, we show that the proposed method adaptively achieves optimal user association and bandwidth ratio control of protected radio resources, which maximizes the geometric mean user throughput within the macrocell coverage area. The system throughput of the proposed method is compared to that for conventional approaches to show the performance gain.
The cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is embracing unprecedented popularity in the evolution of current RAN towards 5G. One of the essential benefits of C-RAN is facilitating cooperative transmission to enhance capacity and energy performances. In this paper, we argue that the conventional symmetric coordination in which all antennas participate in transmission does not necessarily lead to an energy efficient C-RAN. Further, the current assessments of energy consumption should be modified to match this shifted paradigm in network architecture. Towards this end, this paper proposes an asymmetric coordination scheme to optimize the energy efficiency of C-RAN. Specifically, asymmetric coordination is approximated and formulated as a joint antenna selection and power allocation problem, which is then solved by a proposed sequential-iterative algorithm. A modular power consumption model is also developed to convert the computational complexity of coordination into baseband power consumption. Simulations verify the performance benefits of our proposed asymmetric coordination in effectively enhancing system energy efficiency.
In this paper, we clarify the issues in a metropolitan environment involving overlying frequency bands with various bandwidths and propose a cell selection scheme that improves the communications quality based on user and network characteristics. Different frequency bands with various signal bandwidths will be overlaid on each other in forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) radio access networks. At the same time, services, applications or features of sets of user equipment (UEs) will become more diversified and the requirements for the quality of communications will become more varied. Moreover, in real environments, roads and buildings have irregular constructions. Especially in an urban or metropolitan environment, the complex architecture present in a metropolis directly affects radio propagation. Under these conditions, the communications quality is degraded because cell radio resources are depleted due to many UE connections and the mismatch between service requirements and cell capabilities. The proposed scheme prevents this degradation in communications quality. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is evaluated in an ideal regular deployment and in a non-regular metropolitan environment based on computer simulations. Simulation results show that the average of the time for the proposed scheme from the start of transmission to the completion of reception at the UE is improved by approximately 40% compared to an existing cell selection scheme that is based on the Maximum Signal-to-Interference plus Noise power Ratio (SINR).
Efficient use of heterogeneous wireless access networks is necessary to maximize the capacity of the 5G mobile communications system. The wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered to be one of the key wireless access networks because of the proliferation of WLAN-capable mobile devices. However, throughput starvation can occur due to the well-known exposed/hidden terminal problem in carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) based channel access mechanism, and this problem is a critical issue with wireless LAN systems. This paper proposes two novel schemes to identify starved access points (APs) and user equipments (UEs) which throughputs are relatively low. One scheme identifies starved APs by observing the transmission delay of beacon signals periodically transmitted by APs. The other identifies starved UEs by using the miscaptured beacon signals ratio at UEs. Numerous computer simulations verify that that the schemes can identify starved APs and UEs having quite low throughput and are superior to the conventional graph-based identification scheme. In addition, AP and UE management with the proposed schemes has the potential to improve system throughput and reduce the number of low throughput UEs.
For network researchers and practitioners, active measurement, in which probe packets are injected into a network, is a powerful tool to measure end-to-end delay. It is, however, suffers the intrusiveness problem, where the load of the probe traffic itself affects the network QoS. In this paper, we first demonstrate that there exists a fundamental accuracy bound of the conventional active measurement of delay. Second, to transcend that bound, we propose INTrusiveness-aware ESTimation (INTEST), an approach that compensates for the delays produced by probe packets in wired networks. Simulations of M/M/1 and MMPP/M/1 show that INTEST enables a more accurate estimation of end-to-end delay than conventional methods. Furthermore, we extend INTEST for multi-hop networks by using timestamps or multi-flow probes.
To drastically increase the splitting ratio of extended-reach (40km span) time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM/TDM-PONs), we modify the gain control scheme of our automatic gain controlled semiconductor optical amplifiers (AGC-SOAs) that were developed to support upstream transmission in long-reach systems. While the original AGC-SOAs are located outside the central office (CO) as repeaters, the new AGC-SOAs are located inside the CO and connected to each branch of an optical splitter in the CO. This arrangement has the potential to greatly reduce the costs of CO-sited equipment as they are shared by many more users if the new gain control scheme works properly even when the input optical powers are low. We develop a prototype and experimentally confirm its effectiveness in increasing the splitting ratio of extended-reach systems to 512.
Many basic tasks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) rely heavily on the availability and accuracy of target locations. Since the number of targets is usually limited, localization benefits from Compressed Sensing (CS) in the sense that measurements can be greatly reduced. Though some CS-based localization schemes have been proposed, all of these solutions make an assumption that all targets are located on a pre-sampled and fixed grid, and perform poorly when some targets are located off the grid. To address this problem, we develop an adaptive dictionary algorithm where the grid is adaptively adjusted. To achieve this, we formulate localization as a joint parameter estimation and sparse signal recovery problem. Additionally, we transform the problem into a tractable convex optimization problem by using Taylor approximation. Finally, the block coordinate descent method is leveraged to iteratively optimize over the parameters and sparse signal. After iterations, the measurements can be linearly represented by a sparse signal which indicates the number and locations of targets. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed adaptive dictionary algorithm provides better performance than state-of-the-art fixed dictionary algorithms.
Cost-effective cloud storage services are attracting users with their convenience, but there is a trade-off between service availability and usage cost. We develop two cloud provider selection models for cloud storage services to minimize the total cost of usage. The models select multiple cloud providers to meet the user requirements while considering unavailability. The first model, called a user-copy (UC) model, allows the selection of multiple cloud providers, where the user copies its data to multiple providers. In addition to the user copy function of the UC model, the second model, which is called a user and cloud-provider copy (UCC) model, allows cloud providers to make copies of the data to deliver them to other cloud providers. The cloud service is available if at least one cloud provider is available. We formulate both models as integer linear programming (ILP) problems. Our performance evaluation observes that both models reduce the total cost of usage, compared to the single cloud provider selection approach. As the cost of bandwidth usage between a user and a cloud provider increases, the UCC model becomes more beneficial than the UC model. We implement the prototype for cloud storage services, and demonstrate our models via Science Information Network 5.
IEEE 802.11ah is an emerging wireless LAN standard in the sub-1-GHz license-exempt bands for cost-effective and range-extended communication. One of the most challenging issues that need to be overcome in relation to IEEE 802.11ah is to ensure that thousands of stations are able to associate efficiently with a single access point. During network initialization, several thousand stations try to associate with the access point, leading to heavy channel contention and long association delay. Therefore, IEEE 802.11ah has introduced an authentication control mechanism that classifies stations into groups and only a small number of stations in a group are allowed to access the medium in a beacon interval. This grouping strategy provides fair channel access to a large number of stations. However, the approach to grouping the stations and determining the best group size is undefined in the draft of IEEE 802.11ah. In this paper, we first model the authentication/association in IEEE 802.11ah. Our analysis shows that there exists the best group size that results in minimal association delay. Consequently, the analytical model is extended to determine the best group size. Finally, an enhanced authentication control algorithm, which utilizes the best group size to provide the minimum association delay, is proposed. The numerical and the simulation results we obtained with the proposed method demonstrate that our method succeeds in minimizing the association delay.
The compressive sensing (CS) theory has been recognized as a promising technique to achieve the target localization in wireless sensor networks. However, most of the existing works require the prior knowledge of transmitting powers of targets, which is not conformed to the case that the information of targets is completely unknown. To address such a problem, in this paper, we propose a novel CS-based approach for multiple target localization and power estimation. It is achieved by formulating the locations and transmitting powers of targets as a sparse vector in the discrete spatial domain and the received signal strengths (RSSs) of targets are taken to recover the sparse vector. The key point of CS-based localization is the sensing matrix, which is constructed by collecting RSSs from RF emitters in our approach, avoiding the disadvantage of using the radio propagation model. Moreover, since the collection of RSSs to construct the sensing matrix is tedious and time-consuming, we propose a CS-based method for reconstructing the sensing matrix from only a small number of RSS measurements. It is achieved by exploiting the CS theory and designing an difference matrix to reveal the sparsity of the sensing matrix. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our localization and power estimation approach.
This paper experimentally verifies the potential of higher order space division multiplexing in line-of-sight (LOS) channels for multiuser massive MIMO. We previously proposed an inter-user interference (IUI) cancellation scheme and a simplified user scheduling method for Massive Antenna Systems for Wireless Entrance (MAS-WE). In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, channel state information (CSI) for a 1×32 SIMO channel is measured in a real propagation environment with simplified test equipment. Evaluations of the measured CSI data confirm the effectiveness of our proposals; they offer good equal gain transmission (EGT) performance, reduced spatial correlation with enlarged angular gap between users, and quite small channel state fluctuation. Link level simulations elucidate that the simple IUI cancellation method is stable in practical conditions. The degradation in symbol error rate with the measured CSI, relative to that yielded by the output of the theoretical LOS channel model, is insignificant.
This paper presents a capacitor-loaded 4x4 planar loop array for three-dimensional near-field beamforming of magnetic resonance wireless power transfer (WPT). This planar loop array provides three important functions: beamforming, selective power transfer, and the ability to work alignment free with the receiver. These functions are realized by adjusting the capacitance of each loop. The optimal capacitance of each loop that corresponds to the three functions can be found using a genetic algorithm (GA); the three functions were verified by comparing simulations and measurements at a frequency of 6.78MHz. Finally, the beamforming mechanism of a near-field loop array was investigated using the relationship between the current magnitude and the resonance frequency of each loop, resulting in the findings that the magnitude and the resonance frequency are correlated. This focused current of the specified loop creates a strong magnetic field in front of that loop, resulting in near-field beamforming.
In this paper, the effect of the tilt angle of return stroke channel and the stratified lossy ground on the lightning-induced voltages on the overhead lines are studied using the modified transmission-line model with linear current decay with height (MTLL). The results show that the lightning-induced voltages from oblique discharge channel are larger than those from the vertical discharge channel, and the peak values of the induced voltages will increase with increasing the tilt angle. When the ground is horizontally stratified, the peak of the induced voltages will increase with increasing the conductivity of the lower layer at different distances. When the upper ground conductivity increases, the voltage peak values will decrease if the overhead line is nearby the lightning strike point and increase if the overhead line is far from the lightning strike point. Moreover, the induced voltages are mainly affected by the conductivity of the lower layer soil when the conductivity of the upper layer ground is smaller than that of the lower layer ground at far distances. When the ground is vertically stratified, the induced voltages are mainly affected by the conductivity of the ground near the strike point when the overhead line and the strike point are located above the same medium; if the overhead line and the strike point are located above different mediums, both of the conductivities of the vertically stratified ground will influence the peak of the induced voltages and the conductivity of the ground which is far from the strike point has much more impact on induced voltages.
In this paper, the problem of channel estimation in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems over fast time-varying channel is investigated by using a Basis Expansion Model (BEM). Regarding the effects of the Gibbs phenomenon in the BEM, we propose a new method to alleviate it and reduce the modeling error. Theoretical analysis and detail comparison results show that the proposed BEM method can provide improved modeling error compared with other BEMs such as CE-BEM and GCE-BEM. In addition, instead of using the frequency-domain Kronecker delta structure, a new clustered pilot structure is proposed to enhance the estimation performance further. The new clustered pilot structure can effectively reduce the inter-carrier interference especially in the case of high Doppler spreads.
In OFDM systems, link performance depends heavily on the estimation of symbol-timing and frequency offsets. Performance sensitivity to these estimates is a major drawback of OFDM systems. Timing errors destroy the orthogonality of OFDM signals and lead to inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI). The interference due to timing errors can be exploited as a metric for symbol-timing synchronization. In this paper, we propose a novel method to extract interference components using a DFT of the upsampled OFDM signals. Mathematical analysis and formulation are given for the dependence of interference on timing errors. From a numerical analysis, the proposed interference estimation shows robustness against channel dispersion.
This paper studies the multi-link multi-antenna amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system, in which multiple source-destination pairs communicate with the aid of an energy harvesting (EH)-enabled relay and the relay utilizes the power splitting (PS) protocol to accomplish simultaneous EH and information forwarding (IF). Specifically, independent PS, i.e., allow each antenna to have an individual PS factor, and cooperative power allocation (PA) i.e., adaptively allocate the harvested energy to each channel, are proposed to increase the signal processing degrees of freedom and energy utilization. Our objective is to maximize the minimum rate of all source-destination pairs, i.e., the max-min rate, by jointly optimizing the PS and PA strategies. The optimization problem is first established for the ideal channel state information (CSI) model. To solve the formulated non-convex problem, the optimal forwarding matrix is derived and an auxiliary variable is introduced to remove the coupling of transmission rates in two slots, following which a bi-level iteration algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal PS and PA strategy by jointly utilizing the bisection and golden section methods. The proposal is then extended into the partial CSI model, and the final transmission rate for each source-destination pair is modified by treating the CSI error as random noise. With a similar analysis, it is proved that the proposed bi-level algorithm can also solve the joint PS and PA optimization problem in the partial CSI model. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm works well in both ideal CSI and partial CSI models, and by means of independent PS and cooperative PA, the achieved max-min rate is greatly improved over existing non-EH-enabled and EH-enabled relay schemes, especially when the signal processing noise at the relay is large and the sources use quite different transmit powers.
Non-contiguous orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for cognitive radio systems. The secondary users transmit on the selected subcarriers to avoid the frequencies being used by the primary users. However, the out-of-band power (OBP) of the OFDM-modulated tones induces interference to the primary users. Another major drawback of OFDM-based system is their high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). In this paper, algorithms are proposed to jointly reduce the OBP and the PAPR for non-contiguous OFDM based on the method of alternating projections onto convex sets. Several OFDM subcarriers are selected to accommodate the adjusting weights for OBP and PAPR reduction. The frequency-domain OFDM symbol is projected onto two convex sets that are defined according to the OBP requirements and the PAPR limits. Each projection iteration solves a convex optimization problem. The projection onto the set constrained by the OBP requirement can be calculated using an iterative algorithm which has low computational complexity. Simulation results show good performance of joint reduction of the OBP and the PAPR. The proposed algorithms converge quickly in a few iterations.
Ultra-wideband millimeter wave radars significantly enhance the capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) imaging sensors, making them suitable for short-range surveillance and security purposes. For such applications, developed the range point migration (RPM) method, which achieves highly accurate surface extraction by using a range-point focusing scheme. However, this method is inaccurate and incurs great computation cost for complicated-shape targets with many reflection points, such as the human body. As an essential solution to this problem, we introduce herein a range-point clustering algorithm that exploits, the RPM feature. Results from numerical simulations assuming 140-GHz millimeter wavelength radar verify that the proposed method achieves remarkably accurate 3D imaging without sacrificing computational efficiency.
To overcome the false lock or detection missing problems caused by the multiple peaks of the auto-correlation function (ACF) of Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulated signal, an acquisition algorithm based on unit correlation for BOC(n,n) signal is proposed in this paper. The local BOC signal is separated into two unit signals, an odd one and an even one. Then a reconstruction of the unit correlation functions between the unit signals and the received BOC signal is performed and M sections of reconstructed correlation function are accumulated according to the non-coherent method, so that this novel acquisition algorithm can not only eliminate the multiple secondary peaks, but also retain the advantage of the narrow correlation main peak. Simulation results show that the acquisition sensitivity of the proposed algorithm is increased 3dBHz compared with the ASPeCT method, and the computation cost is only 41.46% of the ASPeCT method when M=2.
The development of multi-view video has paved the way for emerging 3D applications. In general multi-view video streaming, video frames for all viewpoints, i.e., cameras, must be transmitted to viewers because the view-switching demands of all viewers are unpredictable. However, existing transmission schemes are highly vulnerable to frame loss. Specifically, frame loss in one viewpoint can induce a collapse in decoding for other viewpoints. To improve loss-resilience, this paper proposes a multi-path based multi-view video transmission scheme. Our scheme encodes video frames into multiple versions that are independent of each other, using inter-view prediction. The scheme then transmits each version using multiple transmission paths. Our scheme makes three contributions: 1) it reduces video traffic even for a large number of cameras, 2) it prevents an increase in the number of undecoded video frames caused by single-frame loss, and 3) it conceals frame loss by taking video frames from other paths. Evaluations show that our proposed scheme improves video quality by 3 dB, as compared to existing transmission schemes in loss-prone environments.
July 31, 2017 Due to the end of the Yahoo!JAPAN OpenID service, My J-STAGE will end the support of the following sign-in services with OpenID on August 26, 2017: -Sign-in with Yahoo!JAPAN ID -Sign-in with livedoor ID * After that, please sign-in with My J-STAGE ID.
July 03, 2017 There had been a service stop from Jul 2‚ 2017‚ 8:06 to Jul 2‚ 2017‚ 19:12(JST) (Jul 1‚ 2017‚ 23:06 to Jul 2‚ 2017‚ 10:12(UTC)) . The service has been back to normal.We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause you.
May 18, 2016 We have released “J-STAGE BETA site”.
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.