Currently, many operators worldwide are deploying Long Term Evolution (LTE) to provide much faster access with lower latency and higher efficiency than its predecessors 3G and 3.5G. Meanwhile, the service rollout of LTE-Advanced, which is an evolution of LTE and a “true 4G” mobile broadband, is being underway to further enhance LTE performance. However, the anticipated challenges of the next decade (2020s) are so tremendous and diverse that there is a vastly increased need for a new generation mobile communications system with even further enhanced capabilities and new functionalities, namely a fifth generation (5G) system. Envisioning the development of a 5G system by 2020, at DOCOMO we started studies on future radio access as early as 2010, just after the launch of LTE service. The aim at that time was to anticipate the future user needs and the requirements of 10 years later (2020s) in order to identify the right concept and radio access technologies for the next generation system. The identified 5G concept consists of an efficient integration of existing spectrum bands for current cellular mobile and future new spectrum bands including higher frequency bands, e.g., millimeter wave, with a set of spectrum specific and spectrum agnostic technologies. Since a few years ago, we have been conducting several proof-of-concept activities and investigations on our 5G concept and its key technologies, including the development of a 5G real-time simulator, experimental trials of a wide range of frequency bands and technologies and channel measurements for higher frequency bands. In this paper, we introduce an overview of our views on the requirements, concept and promising technologies for 5G radio access, in addition to our ongoing activities for paving the way toward the realization of 5G by 2020.
5G is the next step in the evolution of mobile communication and a key component of the future networked society. It will include the evolution of LTE as well as new non-backwards-compatible technology. With capabilities such as massive system capacity, higher data rates, very low latency and ultra-high reliability, 5G will provide significantly enhanced mobile-broadband experience but also support a wide range of new wireless applications and use cases. Key technology components include operation at higher frequency bands and flexible spectrum usage, advanced multi-antenna/multi-site transmission, lean transmission, access/backhaul integration, and possibility for direct device-to-device communication.
This paper investigates a downlink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) combined with single user MIMO (SU-MIMO) for future LTE (Long-Term Evolution) enhancements. In particular, we propose practical schemes to efficiently combine NOMA with open-loop SU-MIMO (Transmission Mode 3: TM3) and closed-loop SU-MIMO (Transmission Mode 4: TM4) specified in LTE. The goal is also to clarify the performance gains of NOMA combined with SU-MIMO transmission, taking into account the LTE radio interface such as frequency-domain scheduling, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), and NOMA specific functionalities such as, multi-user pairing/ordering, transmit power allocation and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the receiver side. Based on computer simulations, we evaluate NOMA link-level performance and show that the impact of error propagation associated with SIC is marginal when the power ratio of cell-edge and cell-center users is sufficiently large. In addition, we evaluate NOMA system-level performance gains for different granularities of scheduling and MCS (modulation and coding scheme) selection, for both genie-aided channel quality information (CQI) estimation and approximated CQI estimation, and using different number of power sets. Evaluation results show that NOMA combined with SU-MIMO can still provide a hefty portion of its expected gains even with approximated CQI estimation and limited number of power sets, and also when LTE compliant subband scheduling and wideband MCS is applied.
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) utilizing the power domain and advanced receiver has been considered as one promising multiple access technology for further cellular enhancements toward the 5th generation (5G) mobile communications system. Most of the existing investigations into NOMA focus on the combination of NOMA with orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) for either downlink or uplink. In this paper, we investigate NOMA for uplink with single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) being used. Differently from OFDMA, SC-FDMA requires consecutive resource allocation to a user equipment (UE) in order to achieve low peak to average power ratio (PAPR) transmission by the UE. Therefore, sophisticated designs of scheduling algorithm for NOMA with SC-FDMA are needed. To this end, this paper investigates the key issues of uplink NOMA scheduling such as UE grouping method and resource widening strategy. Because the optimal schemes have high computational complexity, novel schemes with low computational complexity are proposed for practical usage for uplink resource allocation of NOMA with SC-FDMA. On the basis of the proposed scheduling schemes, the performance of NOMA is investigated by system-level simulations in order to provide insights into the suitability of using NOMA for uplink radio access. Key issues impacting NOMA performance are evaluated and analyzed, such as scheduling granularity, UE number and the combination with fractional frequency reuse (FFR). Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and show that NOMA is a promising radio access technology for 5G systems.
This paper investigates an interference mitigation technique for dynamic time division duplex (TDD) based frequency-separated small cell networks in future long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) based wireless access systems. In dynamic TDD, cross-link interference, i.e. evolved node B (eNB)-eNB interference and user equipment (UE)-UE interference, also occur, and eNB-eNB interference in particular significantly degrades the uplink (UL) transmission performance. In order to alleviate the impacts of eNB-eNB interference and to obtain high traffic adaptation gain, we investigate a transmit power control (TPC) based interference mitigation (IM) scheme. In TPC-IM, time-domain subframes are divided into two subframe sets according to whether the cross-link interference can occur or not, and different TPC parameters are applied depending on the type of subframe. To improve of UL signal to interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) in the subframe set with the potential to occur eNB-eNB interference, there are two approaches of UL power boosting and downlink (DL) power reduction. We investigate the adequate combination of these two approaches to avoid an impact of DL performance degradation and increase of UE power consumption. Moreover, we further investigate a combined scheme of the TPC-IM and a cell clustering interference mitigation (CCIM) to avoid the significantly strong cross-link interference from the neighbouring cells. Computer simulation confirms that the proposed TPC-IM scheme can achieve 4.4% and 26.2% gain in the average DL and UL throughputs, respectively, compared to the case without any IM schemes on dynamic TDD. Moreover, when the CCIM is applied to the TPC-IM scheme, 11.6% and 40.3% gain can be achieved in the average DL and UL throughputs, respectively.
The concept of massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) has recently been proposed. It has been reported that using linear or planar arrays to implement massive MIMO yields narrow beams that can mitigate the interference signal even if interference cancellation techniques such as zero forcing (ZF) are not employed. In this work, we investigate the interference reduction performance achieved by circular array implemented massive MIMO in a real micro cell environment. The channel state information (CSI) is obtained by using a wideband channel sounder with cylindrical 96-element array in the 2-GHz band in an urban area. Circular arrays have much larger beamwidth and sidelobe level than linear arrays. In this paper, when considering the cylindrical array, the interference reduction performance between ZF and maximum ratio combining is compared when one desired user exists in the micro cell while the interference user moves around the adjacent cell. We show that ZF is essential for reducing the interference from the adjacent cell in the circular array based massive MIMO. The required number of antennas in the vertical and horizontal planes for the interference reduction is evaluated, in order to simplify the burden of signal processing for the ZF algorithm in massive MIMO. Because there are elements with low signal to noise power ratio (SNR) when considering cylindrical 96-element array, it is shown that the degradation of the signal to noise plus interference power ratio (SINR) when the number of antennas is reduced is smaller than that by ideal antenna gain reduction with a linear array. Moreover, we show that the appropriate antennas should be selected when a limited number of antennas is assumed, because the dominant waves arrive from certain specific directions.
The fifth generation (5G) mobile communication technologies are attracting a lot of attention in terms of accommodating the huge traffic expected in the future. Millimeter wave communications, which utilize wide frequency bands, are attracting attention for the realization of the high capacity required in the 5G era. In millimeter wave communications, beamforming with massive antennas is expected to play a very important role in compensating the large propagation loss of millimeter waves. Because massive beamforming yields narrow beams, the search for the optimal beam could have considerable impact on the system. In this paper, we propose a new beam search method that can reduce the load of beam search significantly while keeping beamforming gain almost the same as that of the conventional method. The proposed method consists of three stages with the creation of a set of candidate beams in the first stage, selection of an initial beam in the second stage, and refinement of the selected beam in the third stage. In the first stage, the created set of candidate beams contains beams of various widths instead of beams of a uniform width to reduce the number of candidate beams in the set. Here, we leverage the property of millimeter waves according to which the fluctuation of millimeter wave propagation loss is spatially and temporally small because of the fewer multipaths, and therefore, the propagation loss has strong correlation with the user location. By using the decreased set of candidate beams, the beam search time can be reduced in the second stage. Then the beam refinement can increase the beamforming gain to increase user throughput in the third stage. To confirm the effects of the proposed beam search method, we conduct system level simulations by using a propagation model for millimeter wave communications proposed by MiWEBA, which is an international project between Europe and Japan. The results show that the proposed beam search method can reduce the number of candidate beams, and can therefore shorten the beam search time by about 39% without any degradation in outage probability compared with a conventional method.
A distributed antenna system, where the antennas of a base station are spatially distributed throughout the cell, can achieve better throughput at the cell edge than a centralized antenna system. On the other hand, the peak throughput degrades in general because each remote antenna unit has only a few antennas. To achieve both high peak and cell-edge throughputs, we need to increase the total number of antennas. However, this is not easy due to the pilot resource limitation when we use frequency division duplexing. In this paper, we propose using more antennas than pilot resources. The number mismatch between antennas and signals is solved by using a connection matrix. Here, we test two types of connection matrix: signal-distributing and signal-switching. Simulation results show that the sum throughput is improved by increasing the number of antenna elements per remote antenna unit under a constraint on the same number of pilot resources.
In order to tackle the rapidly increasing traffic, the 5th generation (5G) mobile communication system will introduce small cells using higher frequency bands with wider bandwidth to achieve super high bit rate transmission of several tens of Gbps. Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) beamforming (BF) is promising as one of the technologies that can compensate for larger path-loss in the higher frequency bands. Joint analog fixed BF and digital precoding have been proposed to reduce the cost of a Massive MIMO transceiver. However, the conventional scheme assumes the transmission of a few streams using well-known codebook-based precoding as the digital precoding, and both a selection method of the fixed BF weights and a digital precoder design, which are suitable for super high bit rate transmission using multiple streams, have not been studied. This paper proposes a joint fixed BF and CSI-based precoding (called FBCP) scheme for the 5G Massive MIMO systems. FBCP first selects the analog fixed BF weights based on a maximum total received power criterion, and then it calculates an eigenmode (EM) precoding matrix by exploiting CSI. This paper targets a 5G system achieving over 20Gbps in the 20GHz band as one example. Throughput performances of the Massive MIMO using the proposed FBCP are evaluated by link level simulations using adaptive modulation and coding and it is shown that the proposed FBCP with the optimum number of selected beams (baseband chains) can use higher level modulation, up to 256QAM, and higher coding rates and achieve throughputs close to 30Gbps while the cost and complexity can be reduced compared with the fully digital Massive MIMO.
Physical layer security is effective in wireless communications because it makes a transmission secure from the beginning of protocols. We have proposed a chaos multiple-input multiple-output (C-MIMO) transmission scheme that achieves both physical layer security and channel coding gain using chaos signals. C-MIMO is a type of encryption modulation and it obtains the coding gain in conjunction with encryption without a decrease in the transmission efficiency. Thus, the error rate performance is improved in C-MIMO. However, decoding complexity increases exponentially with code length because of the use of maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), which restricts the code length of C-MIMO and thus the channel coding gain. Therefore, in this paper, we consider outer channel code concatenation instead of code length expansion for C-MIMO, and propose an iterative turbo decoding scheme for performance improvement by introducing a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) into C-MIMO and by utilizing turbo principle. The improved performances of the proposed scheme, compared to the conventional scheme when the outer channel codes are convolutional code and low-density parity check (LDPC) code, are shown by computer simulations.
Open-loop (OL) transmit diversity is more subject to the influence of channel estimation error than closed-loop (CL) transmit diversity, although it has the merit of providing better performance in fast Doppler frequency environments because it doesn't require a feedback signal. This paper proposes an OL transmit diversity scheme combined with intra-subframe frequency hopping (FH) and iterative decision-feedback channel estimation (DFCE) in a shared channel for discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-precoded orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). We apply intra-subframe FH to OL transmit diversity to mitigate the reduction in the diversity gain under high fading correlation conditions among antennas and iterative DFCE to improve the channel estimation accuracy. Computer simulation results show that the required average received signal-to-noise power ratio at the average block error rate (BLER) of 10-2 of the space-time block code (STBC) with intra-subframe FH is reduced to within approximately 0.8dB compared to codebook-based CL transmit diversity when using iterative DFCE at the maximum Doppler frequency of fD =5.55Hz. Moreover, it is shown that STBC with intra-subframe FH and iterative DFCE achieves much better BLER performance compared to CL transmit diversity when fD is higher than approximately 30Hz since the tracking ability of the latter degrades due to the fast fading variation in its feedback loop.
This paper presents the performance of outer-loop control for selecting the best modulation and coding scheme (MCS) based on mutual information (MI) for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) spatial division multiplexing (SDM). We propose an outer-loop control scheme that updates the measured MI per information bit value for selecting the best MCS from a mapping table that associates the block error rate (BLER) and MI per bit instead of directly updating the MCS selection threshold so that the required BLER is satisfied. The proposed outer-loop control is applicable to continuous data transmission including intermittent transmission with a short blank period. Moreover, we compare the measured BLER and throughput performance for two types of outer-loop control methods: instantaneous block error detection and moving-average BLER detection. In the paper, we use maximum likelihood detection (MLD) for MIMO SDM. Computer simulation results optimize the step size for the respective outer-loop control schemes for selecting the best MCS that achieves the higher throughput and the target BLER simultaneously. Computer simulation results also show that by using the most appropriate step size, the outer-loop control method based on the instantaneous block error detection of each physical resource block is more appropriate than that based on the moving-average BLER detection from the viewpoints of achieving the target BLER more accurately and higher throughput.
Recent studies on switching fabrics mainly focus on the switching schedule algorithms, which aim at improving the throughput (a key performance metric). However, the delay (another key performance metric) of switching fabrics cannot be well guaranteed. A good switching fabric should be endowed with the properties of high throughput, delay guarantee, low component complexity and high-speed multicast, which are difficult for conventional switching fabrics to achieve. This has fueled great interest in designing a new switching fabric that can support large-scale extension and high-speed multicast. Motivated by this, we reuse the self-routing Boolean concentrator network and embed a model of multicast packet copy separation in front to construct a load-balanced multicast switching fabric (LB-MSF) with delay guarantee. The first phase of LB-MSF is responsible for balancing the incoming traffic into uniform cells while the second phase is in charge of self-routing the cells to their final destinations. In order to improve the throughput, LB-MSF is combined with the merits of erasure codes against packet loss. Experiments and analyses verify that the proposed fabric is able to achieve high-speed multicast switching and suitable for building super large-scale switching fabric in Next Generation Network(NGN) with all the advantages mentioned above. Furthermore, a prototype of the proposed switch is developed on FPGA, and presents excellent performance.
With shortest path bridging MAC (SPBM), shortest path trees are computed based on link metrics from each node to all other participating nodes. When an edge bridge receives a frame, it selects a path along which to forward the frame to its destination node from multiple shortest paths. Blocking ports are eliminated to allow full use of the network links. This approach is expected to use network resources efficiently and to simplify the operating procedure. However, there is only one multipath distribution point in the SPBM network. This type of network can be defined as an end-to-end multipath network. Edge bridges need to split flows to achieve the load balancing of the entire network. This paper proposes a rate-based path selection scheme that can be employed for end-to-end multipath networks including SPBM. The proposed scheme assumes that a path with a low average rate will be congested because the TCP flow rates decrease on a congested path. When a new flow arrives at an edge bridge, it selects the path with the highest average rate since this should provide the new flow with the highest rate. The performance of the proposed scheme is confirmed by computer simulations. The appropriate timeout value is estimated from the expected round trip time (RTT). If an appropriate timeout value is used, the proposed scheme can realize good load balancing. The proposed scheme improves the efficiency of link utilization and throughput fairness. The performance is not affected by differences in the RTT or traffic congestion outside the SPBM network.
Throughput capacity is of great importance for the design and performance optimization of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). We study the exact per node throughput capacity of MANETs under a general 2HR-(g, x, f) routing scheme which combines erasure coding and packet replication techniques. Under this scheme, a source node first encodes a group of g packets into x (x ≥ g) distinct coded packets, and then replicates each of the coded packets to at most f relay nodes which help to forward them to the destination node. All original packets can be recovered once the destination node receives any g distinct coded packets of the group. To study the throughput capacity, we first construct two absorbing Markov chain models to depict the complicated packet delivery process under the routing scheme. Based on these Markov models, an analytical expression of the throughput capacity is derived. Extensive simulation and numerical results are provided to verify the accuracy of theoretical results on throughput capacity and to illustrate how system parameters will affect the throughput capacity in MANETs. Interestingly, we find that the replication of coded packets can improve the throughput capacity when the parameter x is relatively small.
In Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) network, QoS(quality of service) is provided for service flows. For this, five classes of services are defined in IEEE 802.16. They are Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS), Extended Real-Time Polling Service (ertPS), Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS), Non Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort (BE). For real-time classes, the sent packet has a deadline. As the transmission delay is over the limitation of deadline, the packet becomes useless and will be discarded. Thus, they will be served earlier and have higher probability. Nevertheless, non-real-time packets need also to be served from time to time. The scheduler should assign proper bandwidth for non-real-time flows and send the real-time packets before they are discarded. To deicide the right allocated bandwidth, the arrival rate of each flow is a good parameter for assignment. The average µ and standard deviation σ of arrival rate correspond to the long term need and variation of load for one flow. Thus, we proposed a scheduling algorithm named BAcSOA in which µ+kσ is used as a reference to allocate bandwidth with weighted round robin for one flow . Different classes of flows will be given different values of k which corresponds to the priorities of classes. In this algorithm, flow with higher priority should have larger value of k. The value of k will decide the performance of this class. In this paper, we revise the algorithm to EBAcSOA and propose a mathematical way to decide the value of k for a required performance. Then, a simulation platform is proposed to decide k such that a required performance can be obtained for an operating system. This approach may be different from other researches in which there is no required performance and the performance results are obtained only for several operating points. However, the approach proposed is more practical from the view of an operator and may become an attractive point for other researchers.
This paper investigates active period selection for cluster-based WSNs employing traffic adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 beacon enabled medium access control (MAC) under spatial non-uniform traffic and cluster mobility environments, and proposes a simple autonomous distributed superframe duration (SD) selection scheme to enhance network performance under such environments. The proposed scheme autonomously selects an active SD at each cluster head (CH) by using beacon reception power monitoring (conducted in distributed control manner) and also introduces a beacon status notice from sensor nodes (SNs) to their parent CHs in order to prevent unnecessary SD selection at CHs. Moreover, SD reuse mechanism and joint operation with previously proposed distributed backoff mechanism are proposed for the proposed SD selection scheme to further enhance the network performance. The results of computer simulation show that the proposed scheme can improve both the transmission and power efficiency performance of cluster-based WSNs under spatial non-uniform traffic and cluster mobility environments.
This paper introduces a communication system model with renewable power supply. As we assumed a battery-free microgrid system with conventional power as a backup power supply, we propose a method of power state and data transmission scheduling for delay-tolerant communication networks, which reduces conventional power consumption by operating adaptively to changes in renewable power. We found through computer simulations that the proposed method efficiently reduced conventional power consumption.
Due to the depletion of the public IPv4 address pool, Internet service providers will not be able to supply their new customers with public IPv4 addresses in the near future. Either they give private IPv4 addresses and use carrier grade NAT (CGN) or they move towards IPv6 and provide NAT64 service to the IPv6 only clients who want to reach IPv4 only servers. In both cases they must use a stateful NAT/NAT64 solution. When dimensioning a NAT/NAT64 gateway, the port number consumption of the clients is a key factor as the port numbers are 16 bits long and a unique one has to be provided for every session (when using traditional type NAPT, which does not include the destination IP address and port number in the tuple for the identification of TCP sessions) and a single web client may use several hundred sessions and an equal number of port numbers according to literature. In this paper, we present a method for the estimation of the port number consumption of web browsing. The method is based on the port number consumption measurements of the most popular web sites and their combination using the number of the visitors of the web sites as weight factors. We propose the resulting curve as an approximation of a general profile of the average port number consumption of web browsers after the first click, but without taking into consideration the effect of the web users' browsing behavior. We also discuss the case of the extended NAPT, which can reuse the source port numbers towards different destination IP addresses and/or destination port numbers. We propose a formula and give measurement results for the extended NAPT gateways, too. We disclose the measurement method in detail and provide the measurement scripts in Linux, too.
This paper deals with the small-scale fading distribution for UWB channels in the absence and presence of human bodies in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) environments and performance analysis of UWB systems considering the small-scale fading distribution. To obtain small-scale fading statistics, the channel measurements are performed in five representative environments that have different structure and size while locating the receiver (Rx) antenna on 49 (7×7 grid) local points with a fixed transmitter (Tx) antenna in each environment. The measured channel data are processed by a vector network analyzer and the target frequency bands range from 3 to 4.6GHz. From the measured data, we find the best fitted channel model among several typical theoretical distribution models such as Lognormal, Nakagami, and Weibull distributions, showing good agreement with the empirical channel data. We analyze the amplitude variation of the small-scale fading distribution in the absence and presence of human bodies. The results show that the small-scale fading statistics are best described by Weibull distribution and the two parameters of the distribution that determine the shape and the scale of the distribution depend on whether or not human bodies exist. We modeled and analyzed two parameters at different excess delays for all environments. Based on the measured small-scale fading distribution, this paper deals with the performance of UWB system using Rake receivers and also compares the performance with the existing channel model. The results suggest that the small-scale fading distribution in the absence and the presence of human bodies in indoor LOS environments should be considered when assessing the performance of UWB systems.
This paper presents a codeword metric calculation scheme for two step joint decoding of block coded signals in overloaded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A two step joint decoding scheme has been proposed for the complexity reduction as compared to joint maximum likelihood decoding in overloaded MIMO systems. Outer codes are widely used in wireless LANs such as IEEE802.11n. However, the two step joint decoding has not been combined with an outer code. In the first step of the two step joint decoding candidate codewords for metric calculation in the second step are selected. The selection of the candidate codewords in the inner block code may not always be able to provide the metric of a binary coded symbol for the outer code. Moreover, a bit flipping based codeword selection scheme in the two step joint decoding may not always provide the second best candidate codeword. Thus, in the proposed scheme the metric of the binary coded symbol calculated in the first step is reused in the second step of two step joint decoding. It is shown that the two step joint decoding with the proposed metric calculation scheme achieves better performance than that of the joint decoding with the bit flipping based codeword calculation scheme and reduces the complexity by about 0.013 for 4 signal streams with the cost of bit error rate degradation within 0.5dB.
In this study, we propose a two-step approach to evaluate electromagnetic interference (EMI) with a wearable vital signal sensor. The two-step approach combines a quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) field analysis and an electric circuit analysis, and is applied to the EMI evaluation at frequencies below 1 MHz for our developed wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) to demonstrate its usefulness. The quasi-static EM field analysis gives the common mode voltage coupled from the incident EM field at the ECG sensing electrodes, and the electric circuit analysis quantifies a differential mode voltage at the differential amplifier output of the ECG detection circuit. The differential mode voltage has been shown to come from a conversion from the common mode voltage due to an imbalance between the contact impedances of the two sensing electrodes. When the contact impedance is resistive, the induced differential mode voltage increases with frequency up to 100kHz, and keeps constant after 100kHz, i.e., exhibits a high pass filter characteristic. While when the contact impedance is capacitive, the differential mode voltage exhibits a band pass filter characteristic with the maximum at frequency of around 150kHz. The differential voltage may achieve nearly 1V at the differential amplifier output for an imbalance of 30% under 10V/m plane-wave incident electric field, and completely mask the ECG signal. It is essential to reduce the imbalance as much as possible so as to prevent a significant interference voltage in the amplified ECG signal.
In this paper, we propose an analytical approach for adaptive decode-and-forward (ADF) relaying schemes consisting of burst data transmission based on pilot symbol assisted-channel estimation (PSA-CE) methods over quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. At first, we focus on the error-event at relay nodes in which the transmission mode switching is carried out burst by burst, whereas previous studies assumed the transmission mode switching symbol-by-symbol, thus showing lower error rate bound. Under consideration of burst transmission for ADF relay systems, we derive exact error rate expressions which better estimate the performance of actual systems. Then, the average bit and burst error rates are derived in approximated expressions for an arbitrary link signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) related with channel estimation errors. Their accuracy is confirmed by comparison with simulation results. Furthermore, ADF relay systems with PSA-CE schemes are confirmed to select correctly decoded relay nodes without additional signaling between relay nodes and the destination node and it is verified to achieve the performance at a cost of negligible SNR loss.
This paper proposes applying random (opportunistic) beamforming to base station (BS) cooperative multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission. This proposal comprises two parts. First, we propose a block-diagonalized random unitary beamforming matrix. The proposed beamforming matrix achieves better throughput distribution compared to the purely random unitary beamforming matrix when the average path loss determined by distance-dependent loss and shadowing loss is largely different among transmitter antennas, which is true in BS cooperative MIMO. Second, we propose an online update algorithm for a random beamforming matrix to improve the throughput compared to the purely random and channel-independent beamforming matrix generation, especially when the number of users is low. Different from conventional approaches, the proposed online update algorithm does not increase the overhead of the reference signal transmission and control delay. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method using a block-diagonalized random unitary beamforming matrix with online updates in a BS cooperative multiuser MIMO scenario.
In this paper, a threshold-based I-Q diversity combining scheme for ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) readers with a quadrature receiver is proposed in the aspect of improving the tag detection performance. In addition, the performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated as the closed-form expressions. In particular, its statistical characteristics are detailed and its performance is compared to that of conventional schemes over independent and identically distributed Rician fading conditions in terms of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER), and the average number of required combining process. Numerical results indicate that the proposed scheme enables processing power control through threshold control while meeting the required quality of service compared to conventional schemes.
Multi-hop networks have been proposed to increase the data transmission rate in wireless mobile networks, and consequently improve the quality of experience of cell-edge users. A successive resource allocation scheme (SAS) has been proposed for a 2-hop virtual cellular network (VCN). In a multi-cell environment, the performance of SAS degrades because of intra-cell and inter-cell interference. In order to alleviate the effect of intra-cell and inter-cell interference and consequently increase the channel capacity of the VCN, this paper proposes the sequential iterative allocation scheme (SIS). Computer simulation results show that, compared to SAS, SIS can improve the fairness, the ergodic, and the outage channel capacity per mobile terminal (MT) of the VCN in a multi-cell environment. This paper also analyzes the performance of the VCN compared to that of the single hop network (SHN) when SIS is applied in a multi-cell environment. Using SIS, VCN can provide higher ergodic channel capacity, and better degree of fairness than SHN in a multi-cell environment. The effect of the number of wireless ports (WPs) in the VCN is also investigated, and the results suggest that adding more WPs per virtual cell in the VCN can enhance the outage channel capacity per MT and the degree of fairness of the VCN.
This paper extends our previously proposed non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme to the base station (BS) cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cellular downlink for future radio access. The proposed NOMA scheme employs intra-beam superposition coding of a multiuser signal at the transmitter and the spatial filtering of inter-beam interference followed by the intra-beam successive interference canceller (SIC) at the user terminal receiver. The intra-beam SIC cancels out the inter-user interference within a beam. This configuration achieves reduced overhead for the downlink reference signaling for channel estimation at the user terminal in the case of non-orthogonal user multiplexing and enables the use of the SIC receiver in the MIMO downlink. The transmitter beamforming (precoding) matrix is controlled based on open loop-type random beamforming using a block-diagonalized beamforming matrix, which is very efficient in terms of the amount of feedback information from the user terminal. Simulation results show that the proposed NOMA scheme with block-diagonalized random beamforming in BS cooperative multiuser MIMO and the intra-beam SIC achieves better system-level throughput than orthogonal multiple access (OMA), which is assumed in LTE-Advanced. We also show that BS cooperative operation along with the proposed NOMA further enhances the cell-edge user throughput gain which implies better user fairness and universal connectivity.
This paper proposes the concept of adaptive multi-rate (AMR), which jointly employs switching between two links and adaptive rate on each link, for hybrid free-space optical/radio-frequency (FSO/RF) systems. Moreover, we present the cross-layer design of AMR switching, which is based on both the physical and link layers with an automatic-repeat request (ARQ) scheme. We develop an analytical framework based on a Markov chain model for system performance analysis. System performance metrics, including frame-error rate, goodput and link switching probability, are analytically studied over fading channels. Numerical results quantitatively show how the proposal significantly outperforms conventional ones with physical layer-based design and/or fixed-rate switching operation.
Compressive sensing (CS)-based channel estimation considerably reduces pilot symbols usage by exploiting the sparsity of the propagation channel in the delay-Doppler domain. In this paper, we consider the application of Bayesian approaches to the sparse channel estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Taking advantage of the block-sparse structure and statistical properties of time-frequency selective channels, the proposed Bayesian method provides a more efficient and accurate estimation of the channel status information (CSI) than do conventional CS-based methods. Moreover, our estimation scheme is not limited to the Gaussian scenario but is also available for channels that have non-Gaussian priors or unknown probability density functions. This characteristic is notably useful when the prior statistics of channel coefficients cannot be precisely estimated. We also design a combo pilot pattern to improve the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that our method performs well at high Doppler frequencies.
In wireless LANs, wireless clients are associated with one of access points (APs) to obtain network connectivity, and the AP performs network traffic relay between the wired infrastructure and wireless clients. If a client with a low transmission rate is associated with an AP, the throughput performance of all the clients that are associated with the AP is significantly degraded because of the long channel usage time of the low-rate client. Therefore, it is important to select an appropriate AP when a new client joins the wireless LAN to prevent the performance degradation. In this paper, we propose a traffic control that determines the feasible data traffic from an AP to the clients on the basis of the trade-off relationship between the equal-throughput and equal-airtime traffic allocation policies. We then propose a network-wide association algorithm that allows a client to be associated with the AP that can provide the highest throughput improvement. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves the better aggregate throughput and throughput fairness performances in IEEE 802.11 WLANs.
This paper investigates the detection performance of an improved energy detector for a secondary user with spatially correlated multiple antennas. In an improved energy detector, an arbitrary positive power operation p replaces the squaring operation in a conventional energy detector, and the optimum value of p that gives the best detection performance may be different from 2. Firstly, for a given value of p, we derive closed-form expressions for the probability of detection and the probability of false alarm when antennas at the secondary user are exponentially correlated. We then find the optimum value of p for two different detection criteria-maximizing the probability of detection for a target probability of false alarm, and minimizing the probability of false alarm for a target probability of detection. We show that the optimum p is strongly dependent on system parameters like number of antennas, antenna correlation coefficient among multiple antennas, and average received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). From results, we infer that, in low SNR regime, the effect of antenna correlation is less pronounced on the optimum p. Finally, we find the optimum values of p and threshold jointly that minimize the total error rate.
At present, wireless local area networks (WLANs) based on IEEE802.11 are widely deployed in both private premises and public areas. In a public environment offering several access points (APs), a station (STA) needs to choose which AP to associate with. In this paper, we propose a distributed association control scheme with user guidance to increase users' utility based on uplink and downlink throughputs of individual stations. As part of the scheme, we also present a simple throughput estimation method that considers physical data rate, traffic demand, and frame length in both uplink and downlink. Basically, in the proposed scheme, an AP selects a user and suggests that the user moves to another AP if certain conditions are met. The user then decides whether to accept the suggestion or not in a self-interested manner or in a voluntary manner for the benefit of all users including the user's own self. Through simulations under this condition, we confirm that our distributed association control scheme can improve user utility and fairness even though the channel quality of the new AP is unknown in advance.
In this paper, we analyze the rollback traffic in polar-orbit satellite networks that use the snapshot routing algorithm. The concept of diamond rollback links and polar rollback links are presented for the first time, and the numbers of diamond and polar rollback links in polar-orbit satellite networks are concisely formulated. Simulations are performed based on the Iridium and Teledesic system in NS2, and the results finally confirm our analysis. With this work, we can not only simplify the rollback loops avoidance scheme, but also provide guidance for future satellite network routing optimization and topology design.
The Earth's ionosphere can hinder radio propagation with two serious problems: group delay and phase advance. Ionospheric irregularities are significantly troublesome since they make the amplitude and phase of the radio signals fluctuate rapidly, which is known as ionospheric scintillation. Severe ionospheric scintillation could cause loss of phase lock, which would degrade the positioning accuracy and affect the performance of navigation systems. Based on the phase screen model, this paper presents a novel power spectrum model of phase scintillation and a model of amplitude scintillation. Preliminary results show that, when scintillation intensity increases, the random phase and amplitude fluctuations become stronger, coinciding with the observations. Simulations of the scintillation effects on the acquisition of Beidou signals predict acquisition probability. In addition, acquisition probabilities of GPS and Beidou signals under different scintillation intensities are presented. And by the same SNR the acquisition probability decreases when the scintillation intensity increases. The simulation result shows that scintillation could cause the loss of the acquisition performance of Beidou navigation system. According to the comparison of Beidou and GPS simulations, the code length and code rate of satellite signals have an effect on the acquisition performance of navigation system.