This paper presents a novel 60 GHz-band photonic-integrated array-antenna and module for radio-over-fiber (RoF)-based beam forming. An integrated photonic array-antennas (IPA), where eight photodiodes and 4×2 arrayed patch-antenna are integrated in a single board, is actually fabricated, and 3.5-Gbit/s QPSK digital signal transmission with beam forming of the IPA is experimentally demonstrated. In addition, a novel 60-GHz compact antenna module is proposed and fabricated for increasing the number of antenna elements and flexibility creating various beam patterns. The feasibility of beam forming operation for the proposed antenna module is confirmed by a 60-GHz RoF transmission experiment. The capability of detecting the mobile terminal direction, which is one of the indispensable functions for actual environment, is also studied. The obtained results in this paper will be useful for designing future radio access networks based on RoF transmission technology.
We describe a field experiment of flexible modulation format adaptation on a real-time 400Gbit/s/ch DSP-LSI. This real-time DSP-LSI features OSNR estimation, practical simplified back propagation, and high gain soft-decision forward error correction. With these techniques, we have successfully demonstrated modulation format allocation and transmission of 56-channel 400Gbit/s-2SC-PDM-16QAM and 200Gbit/s-2SC-PDM-QPSK signals in 216km and 3246km standard single mode fiber, respectively.
This paper presents an application of low-coherence interferometry for measurement of mode field diameters (MFDs) of a few-mode fiber and shows its performance compared with another method using a mode multiplexer. We found that the presented method could measure MFDs in a few-mode fiber even without any special mode multiplexers.
This paper presents a fast and large-scale optical circuit-switch architecture for intra-datacenter applications that uses a combination of space switches and wavelength-routing switches are utilized. A 1,440 × 1,440 optical switch is designed with a fast-tunable laser, 8×8 delivery-and-coupling switch, and a 180×180 wavelength-routing switch. We test the bit-error-ratio characteristics of all ports of the wavelength-routing switch using 180-wavelength 10-Gbps signals in the full C-band. The worst switching time, 498 microseconds, is confirmed and all bit-error ratios are acceptable.
Free-space optical (FSO) communication, which offers better data rate at a lower cost compared to radio-frequency (RF) backhauls, and is much easier to setup and maintain than optical cables, is gaining attention as an attractive substitute. Average capacity is one of the main performances metrics to understand the connectivity and data rates of a communication system but the performance analysis for mixed RF/FSO link is not straightforward as the RF link and the FSO link experiences different atmospheric perturbations. In this paper, we have investigated the ergodic capacity of a dual-hop mixed RF/FSO communication system realized with an average power scaling (APS) based amplify and forward (AF) relay. Assuming moderate to strong atmospheric turbulence, the FSO link is modeled by gamma-gamma distribution while it is assumed that the RF link experiences multipath Rayleigh fading. Simple analytical methods have been devised for obtaining concise closed-form expressions for ergodic capacity under four different rate/ power adaptation policies and are validated through extensive Monte Carlo simulations.
We numerically investigate a PDM-QPSK multi-rate coherent burst-mode optical receiver capable of receiving 3 different line-rates, suitable for next generation optical networks such as hybrid optical circuit switching (OCS)/optical packet switching (OPS) networks, access networks and datacenter networks. The line-rate detection algorithm relies on a simple-to-generate optical header, it is based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) which can be efficiently implemented with the Goertzel algorithm, and it is insensitive to polarization rotations and frequency offset. Numerically, we demonstrate that performance in terms of packet detection rate (PER) can be tailored by controlling the sizes of the packet header and the line-rate estimator.
In this paper, extended polar codes based on re-polarization technique are proposed. The presented schemes extend a conventional polar code of length N to length N+q, which stand in contrast to known length-compatible schemes such as puncturing and shortening techniques that reduce the length from N to N-q. For certain specific lengths, the waterfall region performance of our extended polar code is superior to that of other length-compatible polar codes. It provides better reliability and reduces the management overhead in several storage devices and communications systems. In essence, extended polar codes are created by re-polarizing the q least reliable nonfrozen bit-channels with the help of q additional frozen bit-channels. It is proved that this re-polarization enhances the reliability of these bits. Moreover, the extended schemes can be not only modified to improve decoding performance, but generalized as a m-stage scheme to improve throughput significantly. With parallel operation, the throughput is improved around 2m-1 times when q is small. Compared to a shortened polar code with length 1536, the encoding and decoding complexities of an extended polar code are only 50% and 60.5%, respectively.
We consider a multirate loss system that accommodates several service-classes with cooperative and non-cooperative users, which generate random or quasi-random arriving calls (depending on the users population). The term “ cooperative” refers to users that can retry (with a certain probability, when the total occupied bandwidth of the system is below a predefined threshold) to be connected in the system with a reduced bandwidth, if they are blocked with their initial peak-bandwidth requirement. This behavior increases the quality of service (QoS) perceived by other users. Due to the retries, the system model does not have a product form solution for the steady state distribution. However, we propose an efficient calculation of system's occupancy distribution, congestion probabilities and system's utilization, while avoiding complex state space enumeration and processing. As it is shown through simulation, the proposed recursive formulas are consistent and quite accurate. For evaluation, we use the conventional trunk/bandwidth reservation control to equalize the congestion probabilities and compare them with the results of the proposed models. Besides, we generalize the proposed models by considering the coexistence of random and quasi-random arrivals. Furthermore, we propose (a) a heuristic method for the determination of desired retry probabilities according to a fairness index and (b) an optimization procedure whereby we assess the retry threshold so that the QoS of the least speed non-cooperative calls is guaranteed for certain retry probabilities of cooperative calls.
In the 5G era, centralized mobility management raises the issue of traffic concentration on the mobility anchor. Distributed mobility management is expected to be a solution for this issue, as it moves mobility anchor functions to multiple edge routers. However, it incurs path stretch and redundant traffic on the backhaul links. Although these issues were not considered important in the 3G/4G era, they are expected to be a serious problem in the 5G era. In this paper, we design a routing-based mobility management mechanism to address the above problems. The mechanism integrates distributed routing with Bloom Filters and an anchor-less scheme where edge routers work as mobility anchors. Simulations show that the proposed mechanism achieves a good balance between redundant traffic on the backhaul links and routing overhead.
Recently, P2PTV is a popular application to deliver video streaming data over the Internet. On the overlay network, P2PTV applications create logical links between pairs of peers considering round trip time (RTT) without physical network consideration. P2PTV packets are shared over a network without localization awareness which is a serious problem for Internet Service Providers (ISPs). A delay-insertion-based traffic localization scheme was proposed for solving this problem. However, this scheme sometimes leads the newly joining peer to download streaming traffic from a local neighbor peer which has only scarce upload bandwidth. This paper proposes a novel scheme of delay-insertion-based traffic localization in which the router estimates relay capability to each relay peer candidate and leads the newly joining peer to connect to a neighbor peer with sufficient performance for relaying video data. Parameters were evaluated for the optimized condition in the relay capability estimation process. In addition, experiments conducted on a real network show that our proposed scheme can prevent the newly joining peer from downloading video data from peers with insufficient relay capability and maintain video quality close to normal in a P2PTV system while ensuring efficient traffic localization at the level of the Autonomous System (AS) network.
Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) protocols based on the store-and-carry principle offer useful functions such as forwarding, utility value, social networks, and network coding. Although many DTN protocol proposals have been offered, work continues to improve performance. In order to implement DTN functions, each protocol introduces multiple parameters; their performance is largely dependent on how the parameter values are set. In this paper, we focus on improving spray and wait (S&W) by proposing a communication protocol named a Spray and AHP-GRA-based Forwarding (S&AGF) and Spray and Fuzzy based Forwarding (S&FF) scheme for DTN. The proposed protocols include a new forwarding scheme intended to extend network lifetime as well as maintain acceptable delivery ratio by addressing a deficiency in existing schemes that do not take energy into consideration. We choose the most suitable relay node by taking the energy, mobility, measured parameters of nodes into account. The simulation-based comparison demonstrates that the proposed S&AGF and S&FF schemes show better balanced performance level in terms of both delivery ratio and network lifetime than original S&W and its variants.
Wireless Ad hoc networks have been rapidly developed in recent years since they promise a wide range of applications. However, their structures, which are based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, cause a severe unfairness problem in bandwidth sharing among different users. This is an extreme drawback because in wireless ad hoc networks, all users need to be treated fairly regardless of their geographical positions. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the fairness among flows by sensing channel access of other nodes based on the information obtained at the link layer and then, controlling the packet sending rate from the link layer to the MAC layer and the dequeue rate from the queue. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves a better fairness with a good total throughput compared to conventional methods.
In order to support seamless mobility in the Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Architecture we propose the Named-Node Network Architecture (3NA). 3NA introduces two independent namespaces to ICN, the 3N namespace used to uniquely identify nodes within a network and the Point of Attachment (PoA) namespace to identify a node's PoA to the network. The mappings between the two namespaces, along with all the necessary mechanisms to keep the mappings updated over time, are used when routing ICN packets to improve delay and the goodput when either the producer or the consumer are mobile. To support simultaneous producer and consumer mobility, we expand on the 3NA by adding a new Protocol Data Unit (PDU), the DU PDU. The DU PDU permits the encapsulation of ICN packets in a header that has source and destination name fields which belong to 3NA's 3N namespace. The new PDU permits seamless connectivity as long as 3NA's point of attachment signaling is strictly followed. We demonstrate the performance of the DU PDU against our previous defined communication methods and Named Data Networking's (NDN) Smart Flooding forwarding strategy using our open source nnnSIM module for the ns-3 framework. The new PDU outperforms all existing alternatives when the producer or both consumer and provider are mobile, obtaining overall lower mean network delay and higher median goodput.
Web browsing services are expanding as smartphones are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. To provide customers with appropriate quality of web-browsing services, quality design and in-service quality management on the basis of quality of experience (QoE) is important. We propose a web-browsing QoE estimation model. The most important QoE factor for web-browsing is the waiting time for a web page to load. Next, the variation in the communication quality based on a mobile network should be considered. We developed a subjective quality assessment test to clarify QoE characteristics in terms of waiting time using 20 different types of web pages and constructed a web-page QoE estimation model. We then conducted a subjective quality assessment test of web-browsing to clarify the relationship between web-page QoE and web-browsing QoE for three web sites. We obtained the following two QoE characteristics. First, the main factor influencing web-browsing QoE is the average web-page QoE. Second, when web-page QoE variation occurs, a decrease in web-page QoE with a huge amplitude causes the web-browsing QoE to decrease. We used these characteristics in constructing our web-browsing QoE estimation model. The verification test results using non-training data indicate the accuracy of the model. We also show that our findings are applicable to web-browsing quality design and solving management issues on the basis of QoE.
In order to satisfy the very high traffic demand in crowded hotspot areas and realize adequate security in future fifth-generation networks, this paper studies physical-layer security in the downlink of a two-tier ultra dense heterogeneous network, where a ubiquitous array formed by ultra dense deployed small-cells surrounds a macrocell base station. In this paper, the locations of legitimate users and eavesdroppers are drawn from Poisson point processes. Then, the cumulative distribution functions of the receive signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio for legitimate users and eavesdroppers are derived. Further, the average secrecy rate and secrecy coverage probability for each tier as well as for the whole network are investigated. Finally, we analyze the influences on secrecy performance caused by eavesdropper density, transmit power allocation ratio, antenna number allocation ratio, and association area radius.
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising architecture for the future Internet and it is mainly designed for efficient content delivery and retrieval. However, producer mobility support is one of the challenging problems of NDN. This paper proposes a scheme which aims to optimize the tunneling-based producer mobility solution in NDN. It does not require NDN routers to change their routing tables (Forwarding Information Base) after a producer moves. Instead, the Interest packet can be sent from a consumer to the moved producer using the tunnel. The piggybacked Data packet which is sent back to the consumer will trigger the consumer to send the following Interest packets through the optimized path to the producer. Moreover, a naming scheme is proposed so that the NDN caching function can be fully utilized. An analysis is carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposal. The results indicate that the proposed scheme reduces the network cost compared to related works and supports route optimization for enhanced producer mobility support in NDN.
Network equipment, such as routers, switches, and RADIUS servers, generate various log messages induced by network events such as hardware failures and protocol flaps. In large production networks, analyzing the log messages is crucial for diagnosing network anomalies; however, it has become challenging due to the following two reasons. First, the log messages are composed of unstructured text messages generated in accordance with vendor-specific rules. Second, network events that induce the log messages span several geographical locations, network layers, protocols, and services. We developed a method to tackle these obstacles consisting of two techniques: statistical template extraction (STE) and log tensor factorization (LTF). The former leverages a statistical clustering technique to automatically extract primary templates from unstructured log messages. The latter builds a statistical model that collects spatial-temporal patterns of log messages. Such spatial-temporal patterns provide useful insights into understanding the impact and patterns of hidden network events. We evaluate our techniques using a massive amount of network log messages collected from a large operating network and confirm that our model fits the data well. We also investigate several case studies that validate the usefulness of our method.
Anisotropic dielectrics and ferromagnetic materials are widely used in dispersion-engineered metamaterials. For example, nonreciprocal magnetic photonic crystals (MPhCs) are periodic structures whose unit cell is composed of two misaligned anisotropic dielectric layers and one ferromagnetic layer and they have extraordinary characteristics such as wave slowdown and field amplitude increase. We develop an unconditionally stable complex-envelop alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain method (CE-ADI-FDTD) suitable for the transient analysis of anisotropic dielectrics and ferromagnetic materials. In the proposed algorithm, the perfectly-matched-layer (PML) is straightforwardly incorporated in Maxwell's curl equations. Numerical examples show that the proposed PML-CE-ADI-FDTD method can reduce the CPU time significantly for the transient analysis of anisotropic dielectrics and ferromagnetic materials while maintaining computational accuracy.
Beamforming technology is an effective method to build a robust link. The commonly used digital beamforming is an expensive and power consuming approach to realizing millimeter-wave transmission. This makes radio frequency(RF) beamforming, which has low cost and low power consumption due to its use of phase shifters the more feasible approach to creating stable links in the millimeter-wave band. Unfortunately, the performance of RF processing is degraded by the limited precision of digital phase shifters. In this paper, we analyze the gain loss caused by the limited precision of phase shifter in millimeter wave single stream beam steering. We deduce a theoretical relationship between the array gain loss and variance of phase error. The theoretical results are validated by the Monte Carlo simulations, which indicate that gain loss could be reduced by the increased precision of phase shifter. In practical applications, 4-bit phase shifters provide sufficient accuracy for single stream beam steering.
This paper proposes a new methodology to design optimal antennas for MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output) communication systems by using spherical mode expansion. Given spatial channel properties of a MIMO channel, such as the angular profile at both sides, the optimal MIMO antennas should provide the largest channel capacity with a constraint of the limited implementation space (volume). In designing a conventional MIMO antenna, first the antenna structure (current distribution) is determined, second antenna directivity is calculated based on the current distribution, and thirdly MIMO channel capacity is calculated by using given angular profiles and obtained antenna directivity. This process is repeated by adjusting the antenna structure until the performance satisfies a predefined threshold. To the contrary, this paper solves the optimization problem analytically and finally gives near optimal antenna structure (current distribution) without any greedy search. In the proposed process, first the optimal directivity of MIMO antennas is derived by applying spherical mode expansion to the angular profiles, and second a far-near field conversion is applied on the derived optimal directivity to achieve near optimal current distributions on a limited surface. The effectiveness of the proposed design methodology is validated via numerical calculation of MIMO channel capacity as in the conventional design method while giving near optimal current distribution with constraint of an antenna structure derived from proposed methodology.
A novel element is proposed for manipulating two orthogonally-polarized electromagnetic waves, resulting in a polarization-reconfigurable flat transmitarray. This element consists of four identical metallic patterns, including a square frame loaded with short stubs and an internal crossed dipole, which are printed on the two sides of three identical flat dielectric slabs, with no air gap among them. With a linearly-polarized (LP) feeder, the flat transmitarray can transform the LP incident wave into a circular, horizontal or vertical polarization wave in a convenient way. By rotating the LP feeder so that the polarization angle is 0°, 45°, 90° or 135°, the waves of linear horizontal, right-handed circular, linear vertical or left-handed circular polarization can be obtained alternately. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate the performance. The measured axial ratio bandwidths for RHCP and LHCP transmitarrays are about 7.1% and 5.1%, respectively, the 3dB gain bandwidths are 16.19% and 22.4%, and the peak gains are 25.56dBi and 24.2dBi, respectively.
A novel generalized side-information cancellation (GSIC) precoder is proposed for multiuser multi-input multi-output (MIMO) downlink systems with channel state information at the transmitter. The proposed transceiver involves the following stages. First, a minimum mean square error (MMSE) based channel inversion (MMSE-CI) technique is utilized to suppress multiuser broadcast interference. By using a GSIC technique, it can further reduce the residual multiuser interference and the noise induced by MMSE-CI preprocessing. Next, with a singular value decomposition method, the spatial stream interference of each user is suppressed by the pre-processing and post-processing eigenvector matrices. Finally, the proposed precoder can be extended to joint water filling and diagonal loading methods for performance enhancement. For the correlated MIMO channels, signal subspace and antenna selection methods, incorporating the proposed GSIC precoder, are further designed to maximize the sum rate performance. Simulation results show that the proposed GSIC precoder outperforms the conventional precoders. Besides, simulation results confirm that the proposed GSIC precoder with water filling, diagonal loading, and signal subspace techniques exhibits excellent performance.
In order to tackle rapidly increasing traffic, dramatic performance enhancements in radio access technologies (RATs) are required for fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system. In 5G, small/semi-macro cells using Massive MIMO (M-MIMO) with much wider bandwidth in higher frequency bands are overlaid on macro cell with existing frequency band. Moreover, high density deployment of small/semi-macro cell is expected to improve areal capacity. However, in low SHF band (below 6GHz), antenna array size of M-MIMO is large so that it cannot be installed on some environments. Therefore, to improve system throughput on various use cases in 5G, we have proposed distributed Massive MIMO (DM-MIMO). DM-MIMO coordinates lots of distributed transmission points (TPs) that are located in ultra-high density (UHD). Furthermore, DM-MIMO uses various numbers of antenna elements for each TP. In addition, DM-MIMO with UHD-TPs can create user-centric virtual cells corresponding to user mobility, and design of flexible antenna deployment for DM-MIMO is applicable to various use cases. Then, some key parameters such as the number of the distributed TPs, the number of antenna elements for each TP, and proper distance between TPs, should be determined. This paper presents such parameters for 5G DM-MIMO with flexible antenna deployment under fixed total transmission power and constant total number of antenna elements. Computer simulations show that DM-MIMO can achieve more than 1.9 times higher system throughput than an M-MIMO system using 128 antenna elements.
In recent years, spectrum sharing has received much attention as a technique for more efficient spectrum use. In the case in which all providers are cooperative, spectrum sensing can easily be realized and can improve user throughput (on average). If that is not the case, providers are not cooperative, i.e., spectrum trading, spectrum bands are rented to promote spectrum sharing. To ensure more profit, however, non-cooperative providers must correctly estimate the fluctuation of the number of connected users to be able to determine the offered channel price. In this paper, we propose a spectrum sharing method to achieve both higher throughput and provider profit via appropriate pricing using a disaggregate behavioral model. Finally, we confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method using simulation experiments.
To suppress intercell interference for three-cell half-duplex relay systems, joint interference suppression and multiuser detection (MUD) schemes that estimate weight coefficients by the recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm have been proposed but show much worse bit error rate (BER) performance than maximum likelihood detection (MLD). To improve the BER performance, this paper proposes a joint interference suppression and MUD scheme that estimates the weight coefficients by eigenvalue decomposition. The proposed scheme carries the same advantages as the conventional RLS based schemes; it does not need channel state information (CSI) feedback while incurring much less amount of computational complexity than MLD. In addition, it needs to know only two out of three preambles used in the system. Computer simulations of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission under three-cell and frequency selective fading conditions are conducted. It is shown that the eigendecomposition-based scheme overwhelmingly outperforms the conventional RLS-based scheme although requiring higher computational complexity.
Timing and frequency offsets are caused by imperfect synchronization at the receiver. These errors degrade the performance of OFDM systems by introducing inter-carrier-interference (ICI) and inter-symbol-interference (ISI). In this paper, we derive signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) analytically with timing and frequency offsets for the case that the sampling rate of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in OFDM receiver is an integer fraction of the signal bandwidth. We find the exact form of interference power as a function of the fractional sampling rate. Our derived analysis is confirmed by simulations and can be applied to see the exact performance of OFDM systems with fractional sampling rate.
In this paper, an improved lattice reduction (LR)-aided soft-output multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector is proposed. Conventional LR-aided soft-output MIMO detectors involve the empty set problem (ESP), in which an entry with a particular bit in the candidate list might not exist. To overcome the performance degradation resulting from this ESP, a post-processing algorithm that modifies the candidate list is proposed. The proposed algorithm efficiently resolves the ESP by utilizing the near-orthogonality of the lattice-reduced system model so that the bit error rate (BER) performance is enhanced. In addition, as the complexity of the candidate list generation is reduced with the aid of the post-processing algorithm, the overall complexity is also reduced. Simulation results and the complexity comparisons demonstrate that our proposed method lowers the required Eb/No by 4-5 dB at the BER of 10-5 and the complexity by 13%-55%, compared to the conventional method.
This paper introduces distributed array antenna (DAA) systems that offer high antenna gain. A DAA consists of several small antennas with improved antenna gain. This paper proposes a technique that suppresses the off-axis undesired radiation and compensates the time delay by combining signal processing with optimization of array element positioning. It suppresses the undesired radiation by compensating the delay timing with high accuracy and deliberately generating the inter-symbol interference (ISI) in side-lobe directions. Computer simulations show its effective suppression of the equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) pattern and its excellent BER performance.
Range resolution is one of the metrics of radar performance. Synthetic bandwidth radar has been proposed for high-range-resolution. The transmitted frequency and down-conversion frequency of this type of radar are shifted by fixed amounts from pulse to pulse. Received signals are synthesized by taking IFFT for high-range-resolution. However, this type of radar has a problem with second-time-around echoes since multiple pulses are utilized. Moreover, a range shift occurs due to Doppler velocity. Thus second-time-around echo suppression and Doppler velocity compensation are required for accurate target range measurement. We show in this paper a Doppler velocity measurement method with second-time-around echo suppression for synthetic bandwidth radars. Our proposed method interleaves the transmission of ascending and descending frequency sequences. The Doppler velocity is measured by using a Fourier transform of the multiplication of the signals received using both sequences. The transmitted frequency difference of the adjacent pulses is wider than the bandwidth of the matched filter, so the second-time-around echoes are down-converted to the outside band of the matched filter and suppressed. We verify the principle of the proposed method using numerical simulations and experiments. The results show that second-time-around echoes were suppressed by 7.8dB, the Doppler velocity could be obtained and the range shift due to Doppler velocity was reduced by 7.37 times compared to the conventional SBR.