Biphase periodic sequences having elements +1 or -1 with the two-level autocorrelation function are desirable in communications and radars. However, in case of the biphase orthogonal periodic sequences, Turyn has conjectured that there exist only sequences with period 4, i.e., there exist the circulant Hadamard matrices for order 4 only. In this paper, it is described that the conjecture is proved to be true by means of the isomorphic mapping, the Chinese remainder theorem, the linear algebra, etc.
SDN (Software-Defined Networking) enables software applications to program individual network devices dynamically and therefore control the behavior of the network as a whole. Incomplete programming and/or inconsistency with the network policy of SDN software applications may lead to verification issues. The objective of this paper is to describe the formal modeling that uses the process algebra called pACSR and then suggest a method to verify the firewall application running on top of the SDN controller. The firewall rules are translated into a pACSR process which acts as the specification, and packet's behaviors in SDN are also translated to a pACSR process which is a role as the implementation. Then we prove the correctness by checking whether the parallel composition of two pACSR processes is deadlock-free. Moreover, in the case of network topology changes, our verification can be directly applied to check whether any mismatches or inconsistencies will occur.
This paper describes a blind frequency offset estimator (FOE) with wide frequency range for coherent quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) receivers. The FOE combines a spectrum-based frequency offset estimation algorithm as a coarse estimator with a frequency offset estimation algorithm using the periodogram as a fine estimator. To establish our design methodology, each block of the FOE is rigorously analyzed by using formulas and the minimum fast Fourier transform (FFT) size that generates a frequency spectrum for both the coarse and fine estimators is determined. The coarse estimator's main feature is that all estimation processes are carried out in the frequency domain, which yields convergence more than five times faster than that of conventional estimators. The estimation frequency range of the entire FOE is more than 1.8 times wider than that of conventional FOEs. Experiments on coherent optical 64-ary QAM (64-QAM) reveal that frequency offset estimation can be achieved under a frequency offset value greater than the highest value of the conventional estimation range.
In this paper, we investigate multi-service forwarding in selfish wireless networks (SeWN) with selfish relay nodes (RN). The RN's node-selfishness is characterized from the perspectives of its residual energy and the incentive paid by the source, by which the degree of intrinsic selfishness (DeIS) and the degree of extrinsic selfishness (DeES) are defined. Meanwhile, a framework of the node-selfishness management is conceived to extract the RNs' node-selfishness information (NSI). Based on the RN's NSI, the expected energy cost and expected service profit are determined for analyzing the effect of the RN's node-selfishness on the multi-service forwarding. Moreover, the optimal incentive paid by the source is obtained for minimizing its cost and, at the same time, effectively stimulating the multi-service delivery. Simulation validate our analysis.
A novel resilient coarse granularity optical routing network architecture that adopts finely granular protection and finely granular add/drop is presented. The routing scheme defines optical pipes such that multiple optical paths can be carried by each pipe and can be dropped or added at any node on the route of a pipe. The routing scheme also makes it possible to enhance frequency utilization within pipes, by denser path packing in the frequency domain, as we recently verified. We develop a static network design algorithm that simultaneously realizes the independence of working and backup paths and pipe location optimization to efficiently carry these paths. The design algorithm first sequentially accommodates optical paths into the network, then tries to eliminate sparsely utilized fibers and iteratively optimizes frequency slot/wavelength assignment in each coarse granular pipe so as to limit the impairment caused by dropping the optical paths adjacent in the frequency domain. Numerical experiments elucidate that the number of fibers in a network can be reduced by up to 20% for 400Gbps channels without any modification in hardware.
Quantized congestion notification (QCN), discussed in IEEE 802.1Qau, is one of the most promising Layer 2 congestion control methods for data center networks. Because data center networks have fundamentally symmetric structures and links are designed to have high link utilization, data center flows often pass through multiple bottleneck links. QCN reduces its transmission rate in a probabilistic manner with each congestion notification feedback reception, which might cause excessive regulation of the transmission rate in a multiple-bottleneck case because each bottleneck causes congestion feedbacks. We have already proposed QCN with bottleneck selection (QCN/BS) for multicast communications in data center networks. Although QCN/BS was originally proposed for multicast communications, it can also be applied to unicast communications with multiple bottleneck points. QCN/BS calculates the congestion level for each switch based on feedback from the switch and adjusts its transmission rate to the worst congestion level. In this paper, we preliminarily evaluate QCN/BS in unicast communications with multiple tandem bottleneck points. Our preliminary evaluation reveals that QCN/BS can resolve the excessive rate regulation problem of QCN but has new fairness problems for long-hop flows. To resolve this, we propose a new algorithm that integrates QCN/BS and our already proposed Adaptive BC_LIMIT. In Adaptive BC_LIMIT, the opportunities for rate increase are almost the same for all flows even if their transmission rates differ, enabling an accelerated convergence of fair rate allocation among flows sharing a bottleneck link. The integrated algorithm is the first congestion control mechanism that takes into account unicast flows passing through multiple tandem bottleneck points based on QCN. Furthermore, it does not require any modifications of switches used in QCN. Our simulation results show that our proposed integration of QCN/BS and Adaptive BC_LIMIT significantly mitigates the fairness problem for unicast communications with multiple bottleneck points in data center networks.
Named Data Networking (NDN) has emerged as an alternative to traditional IP-based networking for the achievement of Information-Centric Networking (ICN). Currently, most NDN is deployed over IP networks, but such an overlay deployment increases the transport network overhead due to the use of dual network control planes (NDN routing and IP routing). Software-Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to mitigate the network overhead by forwarding NDN packets without the use of IP routing. However, to deploy NDN over SDN, a variable NDN content name needs to be mapped to a fixed-size match field in an OpenFlow switch flow table. For efficient support of such a mapping task, we propose a new architecture that uses dual name for content: content name and Name Tag. The Name Tag is derived from the corresponding content name and is a legitimate IPv6 address. By using the proposed Name Tag, the SDN with an NDN control application can transport an IPv6 packet that encapsulates an NDN packet for an NDN name-based routing. We emulate the proposed architecture using Mininet and verify that it is feasible.
Energy-efficient tracking of continuous objects such as fluids, gases, and wild fires is one of the important challenging issues in wireless sensor networks. Many studies have focused on electing fewer nodes to report the boundary information of continuous objects for energy saving. However, this approach of using few reporting packets is very sensitive to packet loss. Many applications based on continuous objects tracking require timely and precise boundary information due to the danger posed by the objects. When transmission of reporting packets fails, applications are unable to track the boundary reliably and a delay is imposed to recover. The transmission failure can fatally degrade application performance. Thus, it is necessary to consider just-in-time recovery for reliable continuous object tracking. Nevertheless, most schemes did not consider the reliable tracking to handle the situation that packet loss happen. Recently, a scheme called I-COD with retransmission was proposed to recover lost packets but it leads to increasing both the energy consumption and the tracking latency owing to the retransmission. Thus, we propose a reliable tracking scheme that uses fast recovery with the redundant boundary information to track continuous objects in real-time and energy-efficiently. In the proposed scheme, neighbor nodes of boundary nodes gather the boundary information in duplicate and report the redundant boundary information. Then the sink node can recover the lost packets fast by using the redundant boundary information. The proposed scheme provides the reliable tracking with low latency and no retransmissions. In addition, the proposed scheme saves the energy by electing fewer nodes to report the boundary information and performing the recovery without retransmissions. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides the energy-efficient and reliable tracking in real-time for the continuous objects.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained importance with a rapid growth in their applications during the past decades. There has also been a rise in the need for energy-efficient and scalable routing along with the data aggregation protocols for the large scale deployments of sensor networks. The traditional routing algorithms suffer from drawbacks such as the presence of one hop long distance data transmissions, very large or very small clusters within a network at the same moment, over-accumulated energy consumption within the cluster-heads (CHs) etc. The lifetime of WSNs is also decreased due to these drawbacks. To overcome them, we have proposed a new method for the Multi-Hop, Far-Zone and Load-Balancing Hierarchical-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network (MFLHA). Various improvements have been brought forward by MFLHA. The first contribution of the proposed method is the existence of a large probability for the nodes with higher energy to become the CH through the introduction of the energy decision condition and energy-weighted factor within the electing threshold of the CH. Secondly, MFLHA forms a Far-Zone, which is defined as a locus where the sensors can reach the CH with an energy less than a threshold. Finally, the energy consumption by CHs is reduced by the introduction of a minimum energy cost method called the Multi-Hop Inter-Cluster routing algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that MFLHA has the ability to balance the network energy consumption effectively as well as extend the lifetime of the networks. The proposed method outperforms the competitors especially in the middle range distances.
Software defined networking (SDN) and OpenFlow, which enables the abstraction of vendor/technology-specific attributes, improve the control and management flexibility of optical transport networks. In this paper, we present an interoperability demonstration of SDN/OpenFlow-based optical path control for multi-domain/multi-technology optical transport networks. We also summarize the abstraction approaches proposed for multi-technology network integration at SDN controllers.
Buffer management and delivery latency in various networks have been extensively studied. However, little work has considered the condition in which the traffic exhibits interpacket dependency, a common occurrence with many applications. Furthermore, the existing work related to such traffic mainly focuses on maximizing goodput and little attention has been paid to delivery latency. This paper concentrates on the delivery latency minimization problem for streaming data with packet dependencies. A novel optimization model is proposed to describe the aforementioned problem and the theoretical lower bound for delivery latency is deduced. Based on this model, a plain buffer management (PBM) algorithm is applied to the implementation of the buffer scheduling process. Afterwards, we improve the PBM algorithm under the guidance of a heuristic idea and put forward an optimal buffer management greedy (OBMG) algorithm. Experiments demonstrate that the OBMG algorithm outperforms the currently best known online (BKO) algorithm as it decreases the average delivery latency by 35.6%. In some cases, delivery latency obtained from the OBMG algorithm can be quite close to the theoretical lower bound. In addition, the OBMG algorithm can reduce CPU computational overhead by more than 12% in comparison to the BKO algorithm.
This paper presents a novel defense scheme for DDoS attacks that uses an image processing method. This scheme especially focused on the prevalence of adjacent neighbor spoofing, called subnet spoofing. It is rarely studied and there is few or no feasible approaches than other spoofing attacks. The key idea is that a “DDoS attack with IP spoofing” is represented as a specific pattern such as a “line” on the spatial image planes, which can be recognized through an image processing technique. Applying the clustering technique to the lines makes it possible to identify multiple attack source networks simultaneously. For the identified networks in which the zombie hosts reside, we then employ a signature-based pattern extraction algorithm, called a pivoted movement, and the DDoS attacks are filtered by correlating the IP and media access control pairing signature. As a result, this proposed scheme filters attacks without disturbing legitimate traffic. Unlike previous IP traceback schemes such as packet marking and path fingerprinting, which try to diagnose the entire attack path, our proposed scheme focuses on identifying only the attack source. Our approach can achieve an adaptive response to DDoS attacks, thereby mitigating them at the source, while minimizing the disruption of legitimate traffic. The proposed scheme is analyzed and evaluated on the IPv4 and IPv6 network topology from CAIDA, the results of which show its effectiveness.
A parallel Aho-Corasick (AC) approach, named PAC-k, is proposed for string matching in deep packet inspection (DPI). The proposed approach adopts graphic processing units (GPUs) to perform the string matching in parallel for high throughput. In parallel string matching, the boundary detection problem happens when a pattern is matched across chunks. The PAC-k approach solves the boundary detection problem because the number of characters to be scanned by a thread can reach the longest pattern length. An input string is divided into multiple sub-chunks with k characters. By adopting the new starting position in each sub-chunk for the failure transition, the required number of threads is reduced by a factor of k. Therefore, the overhead of terminating and reassigning threads is also decreased. In order to avoid the unnecessary overlapped scanning with multiple threads, a checking procedure is proposed that decides whether a new starting position is in the sub-chunk. In the experiments with target patterns from Snort and realistic input strings from DEFCON, throughputs are enhanced greatly compared to those of previous AC-based string matching approaches.
Shrinkage widely linear recursive least squares (SWL-RLS) and its improved version called structured shrinkage widely linear recursive least squares (SSWL-RLS) algorithms are proposed in this paper. By using the relationship between the noise-free a posterior and a priori error signals, the optimal forgetting factor can be obtained at each snapshot. In the implementation of algorithms, due to the a priori error signal known, we still need the information about the noise-free a priori error which can be estimated with a known formula. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithms have faster convergence and better tracking capability than augmented RLS (A-RLS), augmented least mean square (A-LMS) and SWL-LMS algorithms.
The 60 GHz band compact-range communication is very promising for short-time, short distance communication. Unfortunately, due to the short wavelengths in this frequency band the shadowing effects caused by human bodies, furniture, etc are severe and need to be modeled properly. The numerical methods like the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD), the finite-element method (FEM), the method of moments (MoM) are unable to compute the field scattered by large objects due to their excessive time and memory requirements. Ray-based approaches like the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD), uniform asymptotic theory of diffraction (UAT) are effective and popular solutions but suffer from computation of corner-diffracted field, field at the caustics. Fresnel zone number (FZN) adopted modified edge representation (MER) equivalent edge current (EEC) is an accurate and fast high frequency diffraction technique which expresses the fields in terms of line integration. It adopts distances, rather than the angles used in GTD, UTD or UAT but still provides uniform and highly accurate fields everywhere including geometrical boundaries. Previous work verified this method for planar scatterers. In this work, FZN MER EEC is used to compute field distribution in the millimeter-wave compact range communication in the presence of three dimensional scatterers, where shadowing effects rather than multi-path dominate the radio environments. First, circular cylinder is disintegrated into rectangular plate and circular disks and then FZN MER is applied along with geodesic path loss. The dipole wave scattering from perfectly conducting circular cylinder is discussed as numerical examples.
A frequency-reconfigurable dipole antenna, whose dual resonant frequencies are independently controlled, is introduced. The antenna's conductor consists of radiating conductors, lumped and distributed elements, and varactors. To design the antenna, current distribution, input impedance, and radiation power including higher-order modes, are analyzed for a narrow-angle sectorial antenna embedded with passive elements. To derive the formulae used, radiation power is analyzed in two ways: using Chu's equivalent circuit and the multipole expansion method. Numerical estimations of electrically small antennas show that dual-band antennas are feasible. The dual resonant frequencies are controlled with the embedded series and shunt inductors. A dual-band antenna is fabricated, and measured input impedances agree well with the calculated data. With the configuration, an electrically small 2.5-/5-GHz dual-band reconfig-urable antenna is designed and fabricated, where the reactance values for the series and shunt inductors are controlled with varactors, each connected in series to the inductors. Varying the voltages applied to the varactors varies the measured upper and lower resonant frequencies between 2.6 and 2.9GHz and between 5.1 and 5.3GHz, where the other resonant frequency is kept almost identical. Measured radiation patterns on the H-plane are almost omni-directional for both bands.
The analytic expressions of lightning electromagnetic fields generated by tortuous channel with an inclined lower section are obtained by decomposing the current infinitesimal and solving Maxwell's equations. By using the transmission line model and pulse function to express the channel-base current, the influence of length and tilt angle of the oblique part on lightning electromagnetic fields as well as the distribution laws of electromagnetic fields for different azimuth angles are analyzed. The results show that the electromagnetic fields in near area are mainly determined by the lower section of the tortuous discharge channel, and the peak values of electromagnetic fields in different field regions will increase with the increasing of the length of the lower section when L1 is shorter than the distance that return-stroke speed multiplied by peak time. Whereas the length of the lower section is longer than the distance that return-stroke speed multiplied by peak time, the waveforms of electromagnetic fields will overlap each other and won't be influenced by oblique part length of the discharge channel before the return-stroke current arrives at the inflection point. Moreover, the peak values of electromagnetic fields will decrease with the increase of tilt angle (the azimuth angle ϕ = 2π/3) and azimuth angle, and the impact of channel geometry on the electromagnetic field strengthens with the distance.
Recently, multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems are being widely studied. For interference cancellation, MU-MIMO commonly uses spatial precoding techniques. These techniques, however, require the transmitters to have perfect knowledge of the downlink channel state information (CSI), which is hard to achieve in high mobility environments. Instead of spatial precoding, a collaborative interference cancellation (CIC) technique can be implemented for these environments. In CIC, mobile stations (MSs) collaborate and share their received signals to increase the demultiplexing capabilities. To obtain efficient signal-exchange between collaborating users, signal selection can be implemented. In this paper, a signal selection scheme suitable for a QRM-MLD algorithm is proposed. The proposed scheme uses the minimum Euclidean distance criterion to obtain an optimum bit error rate (BER) performance. Numerical results obtained through computer simulations show that the proposed scheme is able to provide BER performance near to that of MLD even when the number of candidates in QRM-MLD is relatively small. In addition, the proposed scheme is feasible to implement owing to its low computational complexity.
In this paper, the average symbol error probability (SEP) performance of decode-and-forward (DF) relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M) systems with transmit antenna selection (TAS) over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. The moment generating function (MGF) method is used to derive exact SEP expressions, and the analysis is verified via simulation. The optimal power allocation problem is investigated. Performance results are presented which show that the fading coefficient, number of cascaded components, relative geometrical gain, number of antennas, and power allocation parameter have a significant effect on the SEP.
This paper investigates a frame aggregation (FA) technique in the medium access control (MAC) layer for downlink multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) channels in wireless local area networks (WLANs), and proposes a high-efficient FA scheme that ehances system performance: transmission performance and fairness in communication between mobile terminals (MTs). The proposed FA scheme employs novel criteria for selecting receiving MTs and wireless frame setting with a frame size adaptation mechanism for MU-MIMO transmissions. The proposed receiving MT selection gives higher priority to the MTs expecting higher throughput in the next MU-MIMO transmission and having large amount transmission data while reducing signaling overhead, leading to improvements in system throughput and fairness in communication. The proposed wireless frame setting, which employs hybrid A-MSDU/A-MPDU FA, achieves frame error rate (FER) better than the requirement from communication services by using A-MSDU frame size adaptation. Through system-level simulation, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is validated for downlink MU-MIMO channels in WLANs.
Fast identification is an urgent demand for modern RFID systems. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, access probability adjustment based fine-grained Q-algorithm (APAFQ), to enhance the efficiency of RFID identification with low computation overhead. Specifically, instead of estimation accuracy, the target of most proposed anti-collision algorithms, the APAFQ scheme is driven by updating Q value with two different weights, slot by slot. To achieve higher identification efficiency, the reader adopts fine-grained access probability during the identification process. Moreover, based on the responses from tags, APAFQ adjusts the access probability adaptively. Simulations show the superiority of APAFQ over existing Aloha-based algorithms.
Heterogeneous network (HetNet) is now considered to be a promising technique for enhancing the coverage and reducing the transmit power consumption of the next 5G system. Deploying small cells such as femtocells in the current macrocell networks achieves great spatial reuse at the cost of severe cross-tier interference from concurrent transmission. In this situation, two novel energy efficient power control and resource allocation schemes in terms of energy efficiency (EE)-fairness and EE-maximum, respectively, are investigated in this paper. In the EE-fairness scheme, we aim to maximize the minimum EE of the femtocell base stations (FBSs). Generalized Dinkelbach's algorithm (GDA) is utilized to tackle this optimization problem and a distributed algorithm is proposed to solve the subproblem in GDA with limited intercell coordination, in which only a few scalars are shared among FBSs. In the EE-maximum scheme, we aim to maximize the global EE of all femtocells which is defined as the aggregate capacity over the aggregate power consumption in the femtocell networks. Leveraged by means of the lower-bound of logarithmic function, a centralized algorithm with limited computational complexity is proposed to solve the global EE maximization problem. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms outperform previous schemes in terms of the minimum EE, fairness and global EE.
This paper considers on-demand WiFi wake-up where a wake-up receiver is installed into each WiFi device. The wake-up receiver detects a wake-up call by finding the predefined length of WiFi frames, which corresponds to a wake-up ID, through envelope detection with limited signal processing. Since each wake-up receiver continuously observes the WiFi channel, an adverse event of False Positive (FP), where a WiFi device is falsely turned on without actual wake-up calls, can occur when the length of non-wake-up, background data frames match with predefined length. In this paper, we suggest using the received signal strength (RSS) of WiFi frames to differentiate the real and false wake-up calls. The proposed scheme exploits the correlation among RSSs of WiFi frames received from a single station located in a fixed position. Using measured RSS data obtained under various settings and different degrees of mobility, we investigate not only the FP reduction rate but also its impact on the probability of detecting real wake-up calls. We also present experimental results obtained with our prototype in which the proposed scheme is implemented.
Personal Wi-Fi Hotspot, the Wi-Fi tethering function, is widely deployed on mobile devices to allow other wireless clients to share Internet access via a broadband connection. Its advantages include no connection fee and support of non-3G/LTE devices. However, utilizing this function can rapidly deplete the battery power of the tethering device because both interface connections (3G/LTE and Wi-Fi) are always on. To address this problem, this paper proposes the Energy Management Mechanism for Wi-Fi Tethering Mode on Mobile Devices (EMWT). The mechanism is designed to effectively manage both interfaces by adjusting certain sleep durations according to the incoming traffic. Short, Long, and Deep sleep durations are introduced for saving energy. EMWT can also guarantee the packet delay bound by limiting the maximum sleep period. Five traffic rates, composed of very low, low, medium, high, and very high, are evaluated. NS-3 simulation results reveal that energy savings of up to 52.52% can be achieved with only a slight impact on system performance, in terms of end-to-end delay, throughput, and packet loss.