This paper introduces a base station antenna system as a future cellular technology. The base station antenna system is the key to achieving high-speed data transmission. It is particularly important to improve the frequency reuse factor as one of the roles of a base station. Furthermore, in order to solve the interference problem due to the same frequency being used by the macro cell and the small cell, the author focuses on beam and null control using an AAS (Active Antenna System) and elucidates their effects through area simulations and field tests. The results showed that AAS can improve the SINR (signal to interference-plus-noise ratio) of the small cell area inside macro cells. The paper shows that cell quality performance can be improved by incorporating the AAS into a cellular base station as its antenna system for beyond 4G radio access technology including the 5G cellular system.
In this paper, a printed elliptical monopole antenna for wideband circular polarization is proposed. The antenna's structure is asymmetric with regard to the microstrip line. The section of the ground plane that overlaps the elliptical patch is removed. With simulations, the relationship between the antenna's geometrical parameters and the antenna's axial ratio of circularly polarized wave is clarified. The operational principle for wideband circular polarization is explained by the simulated electric current distributions. The simulated and measured bandwidths of the 3dB-axial ratio with a 2-VSWR is approximately 88.4% (2.12GHz-5.47GHz) and 83.6% (2.20GHz-5.36GHz), respectively.
Shaped beam reflector antennas are widely used because they can achieve a shaped beam even with a single primary feed. Because coverage shapes depend on service areas, optimum primary radiators and reflector shapes are determined by the service areas. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous optimal design method of the primary radiator and reflector for the shaped beam antenna. Particle swarm optimization and the conjugate gradient method are adopted to optimize the primary radiator and reflector. The design method is applied to Japan coverage to verify its effectiveness.
In this paper we use equivalent circuits to analyze the wavelengths in a Fast and Slow wave Waffle-iron Ridge Guide (FS-WRG). An equivalent circuit for the transverse direction is employed and the transverse resonance method is used to determine the fast wave wavelength. Another equivalent circuit, for the inserted series reactance in the waveguide, is employed for the fast and slow wave wavelength. We also discuss the physical system that determines the wavelengths and the accuracy of this analysis by comparing the wavelengths with those calculated by EM-simulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate use of the results obtained in designing an array antenna.
A miniaturized and bandwidth-enhanced implantable antenna is designed for wireless biotelemetry in the medical implantable communications service (MICS) frequency band of 402-405MHz. To reduce the antenna size and enhance the available bandwidth with regard to the reflection coefficients, a meandered planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) structure is adopted on a dielectric/ferrite substrate which is an artificial magneto-dielectric material. The potential of the proposed antenna for the intended applications is verified through prototype fabrication and measurement with a 2/3 human muscle phantom. Good agreement is observed between the simulation and measurement in terms of resonant characteristics and gain radiation patterns; the bandwidth is enhanced in comparison with that of the ferrite-removed antenna, and antenna gain of -27.7dB is obtained in the measurement. Allowances are made for probable fabrication inaccuracies and practical operating environments. An analysis of 1-g SAR distribution is conducted to confirm compliance with the specific absorption rate limitation (1.6W/kg) of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
A novel compact multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system with split-ring resonator (SRR), a popular metamaterial structure, is presented. The MIMO antenna system consists of SRRs as radiator elements arranged close to each other on a printed circuit board. We evaluate the antenna characteristics with a single and two SRR elements arranged within various sizes of area. We also analyze MIMO channel capacities of SRR elements by using radiation patterns. The obtained results confirm that the proposed MIMO antenna system can achieve the same channel capacity as a conventional MIMO antenna system but with a 30% smaller footprint area and is very suitable for compact wireless equipment in next-generation wireless systems.
This paper proposed that a path loss model for outdoor-to-indoor corridor is presented to construct next generation mobile communication systems. The proposed model covers the frequency range of millimeter wave bands up to 40GHz and provides three dimensional incident angle characteristics. Analysis of path loss characteristics is conducted by ray tracing. We clarify that the paths reflected multiple times between the external walls of buildings and then diffracted into one of the buildings are dominant. Moreover, we also clarify how the paths affect the path loss dependence on frequency and three dimensional incident angle. Therefore, by taking these dependencies into consideration, the proposed model decreases the root mean square errors of prediction results to within about 2 to 6dB in bands up to 40GHz.
To deal with the recent explosion of mobile data traffic, heterogeneous cellular networks, in which a large number of small cells are deployed in a macro-cell coverage area, are considered to be a promising approach. However, when a mobile terminal (MT) traveling at a high velocity moves through several small cells in a short period of time, the frequent handovers (HOs) that occur between small cells lead to a deterioration of user quality of experience. To avoid such HO problems, while improving the network capacity in the heterogeneous cellular network, it is effective to introduce an inter-layer HO control policy where MTs traveling at high velocities are connected to the macro-cell layer to reduce the number of HOs and MTs traveling at low velocities or which are stationary are connected to the small-cell layer for offloading traffic from the macro-cells to the small-cells. However, to realize such inter-layer HO control policy in the heterogeneous cellular network, it is crucial to estimate the velocity of each MT. Due to the technological constraints of MT velocity estimation based on the Global Positioning Systems (GPS), we focus on MT velocity estimation algorithms which do not require information provided by GPS. First, we discuss the issues of the existing MT velocity estimation algorithms and then focus on a MT velocity estimation algorithm based on a conventional Doppler spread detection using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Since few studies have evaluated Doppler spread based MT velocity estimation techniques for practical communication systems in actual radio propagation environments, we implement the MT velocity estimation algorithm to a Long Term Evolution (LTE) based experimental system, and perform its field experiments. Based on these experimental results we also evaluate the high or low velocity decision accuracy for the inter-layer HO control policy and show that good decision accuracy is achieved in both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) outdoor propagation environment. These results show its feasibility for practical mobile communication systems in actual radio propagation environments.
Massive MIMO transmission, whose number of antennas is much larger than the number of user terminals, has been attracted much attention as one of key technologies in next-generation mobile communication system because it enables improvement in service area and interference mitigation by simple signal processing. Multi-beam massive MIMO has proposed that utilizes the beam selection with high power in analog part and blind algorithm such as constant modulus algorithm (CMA) which does not need channel state information (CSI) is applied in digital part. Proposed configuration obtains high transmission efficiency. We have evaluated QPSK signals because the CMA basically focuses on the constant amplitude modulation. In this paper, in order to achieve the further higher transmission rate, the amplitude and phase compensation scheme is proposed when using the CMA with amplitude and phase modulation scheme such as QAM. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by the computer simulation.
In this paper, we study the degrees of freedom (DoF) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiway relay channel (mRC) with two relays, two clusters and K (K≥3) users per cluster. We consider a clustered full data exchange model, i.e., each user in a cluster sends a multicast (common) message to all other users in the same cluster and desires to acquire all messages from them. The DoF results of the mRC with the single relay have been reported. However, the DoF achievability of the mRC with multiple relays is still an open problem. Furthermore, we consider a more practical scenario where no channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is available to each user. We first give a DoF cut-set upper bound of the considered mRC. Then, we propose a distributed interference neutralization and retransmission scheme (DINR) to approach the DoF cut-set upper bound. In the absence of user cooperation, this method focuses on the beamforming matrix design at each relay. By investigating channel state information (CSI) acquisition, we show that the DINR scheme can be performed by distributed processing. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that the DoF cut-set upper bound can be attained by the DINR scheme. It is shown that the DINR scheme can provide significant DoF gain over the conventional time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme. In addition, we show that the DINR scheme is superior to the existing single relay schemes for the considered mRC.
A statistical call admission control (CAC) allows more calls with on-off patterns to be accepted and a higher channel efficiency to be achieved. In this paper, we propose three statistical CACs for VoIP calls with silence suppression considering the priority of each VoIP call, where the call priority is determined by the call acceptance order in an IP-PBX. We analyse the packet loss rates in an IP-PBX under the proposed strategies and express the end-to-end QoS of a VoIP call as an R-factor in a VoIP service network. The performances of the proposed CACs are evaluated using the maximum allowable number of VoIP calls while satisfying the end-to-end QoS constraint, the average QoS of acceptable VoIP calls and the channel efficiency. The advantage of the proposed statistical CACs over the non-statistical CAC is verified in terms of these three performance metrics. The results indicate that a trade-off is possible in that the maximum allowable number of VoIP calls in an IP-PBX increases as the average QoS of acceptable VoIP calls is lowered according to the proposed statistical CAC used. Nevertheless, the results allow us to verify that the channel efficiencies are the same for all the statistical CACs considered.
In general, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), e.g., TCP NewReno, considers all losses to be a sign of congestion. It decreases the sending rate whenever a loss is detected. Integrating the network coding (NC) into protocol stack and making it cooperate with TCP (TCP/NC) would provide the benefit of masking packet losses in lossy networks, e.g., wireless networks. TCP/NC complements the packet loss recovery capability without retransmission at a sink by sending the redundant combination packets which are encoded at the source. However, TCP/NC is less effective under heavy and bursty loss which often occurs in fast fading channel because the retransmission mechanism of the TCP/NC entirely relies on the TCP layer. Our solution is TCP/NC with enhanced retransmission (TCP/NCwER), for which a new retransmission mechanism is developed to retransmit more than one lost packet quickly and efficiently, to allow encoding the retransmitted packets for reducing the repeated losses, and to handle the dependent combination packets for avoiding the decoding failure. We implement and test our proposal in Network Simulator 3. The results show that TCP/NCwER overcomes the deficiencies of the original TCP/NC and improves the TCP goodput under both random loss and burst loss channels.
A huge amount of content exists on the Internet, and contents from mobile devices are also present. Growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) is further accelerating this trend. Content oriented networks have been proposed as a new network architecture that conducts routing using the content's ID instead of an IP address. Content queries are routed on the content name itself instead of a destination address in these content oriented networks. When the content from a mobile device moves somewhere else, all the routing tables are generally re-created with the movement information that the mobile device sends. However, a routing scheme that uses ant colony optimization has attracted attention for supporting this process, but this optimization has a problem in that it cannot cope with moving contents and users sufficiently. In this paper, we propose a scheme that can cope with moving contents sources and users that require contents by using pheromones that are laid by these moving mobile devices. This proposed scheme can be applied to case of not only moving content sources but also the moving request users. Moreover, we conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.
In recent years, the reduced cost and increased capacity of memory have resulted in a growing number of buffers in switches and routers. Consequently, today's networks suffer from bufferbloat, a term that refers to excess frame buffering resulting in high latency, high jitter, and low throughput. Although ring aggregation is an efficient topology for forwarding traffic from multiple, widely deployed user nodes to a core network, a fairness scheme is needed to achieve throughput fairness and avoid bufferbloat, because frames are forwarded along ring nodes. N Rate N+1 Color Marking (NRN+1CM) was proposed to achieve per-flow fairness in ring aggregation networks. The key idea of NRN+1CM is to assign a color that indicates the dropping priority of a frame according to the flow-input rate. When congestion occurs, frames are selectively discarded based on their color and the frame-dropping threshold. Through the notification process for the frame-dropping threshold, frames are discarded at upstream nodes in advance, avoiding the accumulation of a queuing delay. The performance of NRN+1CM was analyzed theoretically and evaluated with computer simulations. However, its ability to avoid bufferbloat has not yet been proven mathematically. This paper uses an M(n)/M/1/K queue model to demonstrate how bufferbloat is avoided with NRN+1CM's frame-dropping threshold-notification process. The M(n)/M/1/K queue is an M/M/1/K queuing system with balking. The state probabilities and average queue size of each ring node were calculated with the model, proving that the average queue size is suppressed in several frames, but not in the most congested queue. Computer simulation results confirm the validity of the queue model. Consequently, it was logically deducted from the proposed M(n)/M/1/K model that bufferbloat is successfully avoided with NRN+1CM independent of the network conditions including the number of nodes, buffer sizes, and the number and types of flows.
A simple but efficient method for evaluating the channel capacity of 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems is proposed. First, the channel capacity of a half-wavelength dipole array antenna is calculated using the Monte Carlo method by changing the incident-wave signal-to-noise power ratio, the power difference between two elements, and the correlation coefficient. Using the calculated results, a polynomial function is derived by multivariate regression analysis to estimate the channel capacity. The validity of the developed function is confirmed by comparing the channel capacity estimated by the developed function with that calculated by the Monte Carlo method using a MIMO array antenna operated under various scenarios, including antenna-human body electromagnetic interactions and radio-wave propagation environments, for future MIMO systems. The function is also validated by means of two experimental approaches: the use of radiation patterns measured in an anechoic chamber and the use of a spatial fading emulator that can create a two-dimensional fading environment.
In this paper, we present a low and variable computation complexity decoder based on K-Best for uncoded detection in spatially multiplexed MIMO systems. In the variable complexity K-Best (VKB), the detection of each symbol is carried out using only a symbol constellation of variable size. This symbol constellation is obtained by considering the channel properties and a given target SNR. Simulations show that the proposed technique almost matches the performance of the original K-Best decoder. Moreover, it is able to reduce the average computation complexity by at least 75% in terms of the number of visited nodes.
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) makes multiple mobile users share the same frequency band. In a conventional NOMA scheme, a user pair that can be assigned to the same frequency resource is limited, which reduces the amount of capacity improvement possible. This is because a far user demodulates a signal without canceling an underlaid signal for a near user. In addition, semi-orthogonal multiple access (SOMA) modulation has been proposed. This modulation scheme helps to reduce scheduling complexity and demodulation complexity. In this paper, a joint detection scheme is applied to a far user as well as a near user in a NOMA downlink. The joint detection in the far user leads to a more number of user pairs that can be assigned to the same frequency resource through proportional fair scheduling. The total system throughput performance with the joint detection is evaluated with multi-cell system level simulation. Numerical results show that the joint detection in the original NOMA system increases the system throughput more effectively than that with SOMA modulation.
Spectrum sharing effectively improves the spectrum usage by allowing secondary users (SUs) to dynamically and opportunistically share the licensed bands with primary users (PUs). The concept of cooperative spectrum sharing allows SUs to use portions of the PUs' radio resource for their own data transmission, under the condition that SUs help the PUs' transmission. The key issue with designing such a scheme is how to deal with the resource splitting of the network. In this paper we propose a relay-based cooperative spectrum sharing scheme in which the network consists of one PU and multiple SUs. The PU asks the SUs to relay its data in order to improve its energy efficiency, in return it rewards the SUs with a portion of its authorized spectrum. However each SU is only allowed to transmit its data via the rewarded channel at a power level proportional to the contribution it makes to the PU. Since energy cost is considered, the SUs must carefully determine their power level. This scheme forms a non-cooperative Stackelberg resource allocation game where the strategy of PU is the bandwidth it rewards and the strategy of each SU is power level of relay transmission. We first investigate the second stage of the sub-game which is addressed as power allocation game. We prove there exists an equilibrium in the power allocation game and provide a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the equilibrium. We further prove a unique Stackelberg equilibrium exists in the resource allocation game. Distributed algorithms are proposed to help the users with incomplete information achieve the equilibrium point. Simulation results validate our analysis and show that our proposed scheme introduces significant utility improvement for both PU and SUs.
In this paper, we study the achievable degrees of freedom (DoF) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multi-way relay channel with asymmetric message set that models the scenario of the two-way communication between a base station and multiple users through a relay. Under the assumption of delayed channel state information at transmitters (CSIT), we propose an amplify-and-forward relaying scheme based on the scheme proposed by Maddah-Ali and Tse to support signal space alignment, so that the available dimensions of the signal spaces at the relay and the users can be efficiently utilized. The proposed scheme outperforms the traditional one-way scheme from the perspective of DoF, and is useful to relieve the communication bottleneck caused by the asymmetric traffic load inherent in cellular networks.
The layered cell configuration, in which a large number of small cells are set in a macro-cell coverage area, is attracting much attention recently as a promising approach to handle the rapidly increasing mobile data traffic. In this configuration, cells of various sizes, from macro to small, are placed in various locations, so that the variation in the number and the distribution of the users among cells becomes much wider than in conventional macro-cell homogeneous networks. Therefore, even in the layered cell configuration, the users in the cell with many users and low received signal quality may experience low throughput especially at cell edge. This is because such users experience both low spectral efficiency and few radio resources. In order to resolve this issue, a lot of techniques have been proposed such as load balancing and cooperative multi-point transmission. In this paper, we focus on scheduling priority control as a simple solution that can also be used in combination with load balancing and coordinated multi-point transmission. We propose an adaptive scheduling priority control scheme based on the congestion and user distribution of each cell and clarify the effect of the proposed method by computer simulations.
Protection of the licensed user (LU) and utilization of the spectrum are the most important goals in cognitive radio networks. To achieve the first goal, a cognitive user (CU) is required to sense for a longer time period, but this adversely affects the second goal, i.e., throughput or utilization of the network, because of the reduced time left for transmission in a time slot. This tradeoff can be controlled by simultaneous sensing and data transmission for the whole frame duration. However, increasing the sensing time to the frame duration consumes more energy. We propose a new frame structure in this paper, in which transmission is done for the whole frame duration whereas sensing is performed only until the required detection probability is satisfied. This means the CU is not required to perform sensing for the whole frame duration, and thus, conserves some energy by sensing for a smaller duration. With the proposed frame structure, throughput of all the CUs is estimated for the frame and, based on the estimated throughput and consumed energy in sensing and transmission, the energy efficient pair of CUs (transmitter and receiver) that maximizes system throughput by consuming less energy, is selected for a time slot. The selected CUs transmits data for the whole time slot, whereas sensing is performed only for certain duration. The performance improvement of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through simulations by comparing it with existing schemes.
This paper proposes a dynamic spectrum controlled (DSTC) channel allocation algorithm to increase the total throughput of satellite communication (SATCOM) systems. To effectively use satellite resources such as the satellite's maximum transponder bandwidth and maximum transmission power and to handle the propagation gain variation at all earth stations, the DSTC algorithm uses two new transmission techniques: spectrum compression and spectrum division. The algorithm controls various transmission parameters, such as the spectrum compression ratio, number of spectrum divisions, combination of modulation method and FEC coding rate (MODCOD), transmission power, and spectrum bandwidth to ensure a constant transmission bit rate under variable propagation conditions. Simulation results show that the DSTC algorithm achieves up to 1.6 times higher throughput than a simple MODCOD-based algorithm.
In this paper, we propose an efficient clutter suppression algorithm for automotive radar systems in iron-tunnel environments. In general, the clutters in iron tunnels makes it highly likely that automotive radar systems will fail to detect targets. In order to overcome this drawback, we first analyze the cepstral characteristic of the iron tunnel clutter to determine the periodic properties of the clutters in the frequency domain. Based on this observation, we suggest for removing the periodic components induced by the clutters in iron tunnels in the cepstral domain by using the cepstrum editing process. To verify the clutter suppression of the proposed method experimentally, we performed measurements by using 77GHz frequency modulated continuous waveform radar sensors for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to suppress the clutters in iron-tunnel environments in the sense that it improves the early target detection performance for ACC significantly.