With the growth of cloud-based services, cloud data centers are experiencing large growth. A key component in a cloud data center is the network technology deployed. In particular, Ethernet technology, commonly deployed in cloud data centers, is already envisioned for 10 Tbps Ethernet. In this paper, we study and analyze the makespan, workload execution times, and virtual machine migrations as the network speed increases. In particular, we consider homogeneous and heterogeneous data centers, virtual machine scheduling algorithms, and workload scheduling algorithms. Results obtained from our study indicate that the increase in a network's speed reduces makespan and workloads execution times, while aiding in the increase of the number of virtual machine migrations. We further observed that the number of migrations' behaviors in relation to the speed of the networks also depends on the employed virtual machines scheduling algorithm.
In this paper, we apply the concept of software-defined data plane to defining new services for Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs). Although there are a large number of MVNOs proliferating all over the world and most of them provide low bandwidth at low price, we propose a new business model for MVNOs and empower them with capability of tailoring fine-grained subscription plans that can meet users' demands. For example, abundant bandwidth can be allocated for some specific applications, while the rest of the applications are limited to low bandwidth. For this purpose, we have recently proposed the concept of application and/or device specific slicing that classifies application and/or device specific traffic into slices and applies fine-grained quality of services (QoS), introducing various applications of our proposed system . This paper reports the prototype implementation of such proposal in the real MVNO connecting customized smartphones so that we can identify applications from the given traffic with 100% accuracy. In addition, we propose a new method of identifying applications from the traffic of unmodified smartphones by machine learning using the training data collected from the customized smartphones. We show that a simple machine learning technique such as random forest achives about 80% of accuracy in applicaton identification.
In a multi-tenant data center, nodes and links of tenants' virtual networks (VNs) share a single component of the physical substrate network (SN). The failure of a single SN component can thereby cause the simultaneous failures of multiple nodes and links in a single VN; this complex of failures must significantly disrupt the services offered on the VN. In the present paper, we clarify how the fault tolerance of each VN is affected by a single SN failure, especially from the perspective of VN allocation in the SN. We propose a VN allocation model for multi-tenant data centers and formulate a problem that deals with the bandwidth loss in a single VN due a single SN failure. We conduct numerical simulations (with the setting that has 1.7×108bit/s bandwidth demand on each VN, (denoted by Ci)). When each node in each VN is scattered and mapped to an individual physical server, each VN can have the minimum bandwidth loss (5.3×102bit/s (3.0×10-6×Ci)) but the maximum required bandwidth between physical servers (1.0×109bit/s (5.7×Ci)). The balance between the bandwidth loss and the required physical resources can be optimized by assigning every four nodes of each VN to an individual physical server, meaning that we minimize the bandwidth loss without over-provisioning of core switches.
Multi-tenant datacenter networking, with which multiple customer networks (tenants) are virtualized and consolidated in a single shared physical infrastructure, has recently become a promising approach to reduce device cost, thanks to advances of virtualization technologies for various networking devices (e.g., switches, firewalls, load balancers). Since network devices are configured with low-level commands (no context of tenants), network engineers need to manually manage the context of tenants in different stores such as spreadsheet and/or configuration management database (CMDB). The use of CMDB is also effective in increasing the ‘visibility’ of tenant configurations (e.g., information sharing among various teams); However, different from the ideal use, only limited portion of network configuration are stored in CMDB in order to reduce the amount of ‘double configuration management’ between device settings (running information) and CMDB (stored information). In this present work, we aim to bridge the gap between CDMB and device status. Our basic approach is to automatically analyze per-device configuration settings to recover per-tenant network-wide configuration (running information) based on a graph-traversal technique applied over abstracted graph representation of device settings (to handle various types of vendor-specific devices); The recovered running information of per-tenant network configurations is automatically uploaded to CMDB. An implementation of this methodology is applied to a datacenter environment that management of about 100 tenants involves approximately 5,000 CMDB records, and our practical experiences are that this methodology enables to double the amount of CMDB records. We also discuss possible use cases enabled with this methodology.
Mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) are mobile operators without their own infrastructure or government issued spectrum licenses. They purchase spectrum resources from primary mobile network operators (MNOs) to provide communication services under their own brands. MVNOs are expected to play an important role in mobile network markets, as this will increase the competition in retail markets and help to meet the demand of niche markets. However, with the rapidly increasing demand of mobile data traffic, efficient utilization of the limited spectrum resources owned by MVNOs has become an important issue. We propose here a resource sharing mechanism between MVNOs against the background of network functions virtualization (NFV). The proposed mechanism enables MVNOs to improve their quality of service (QoS) by sharing spectrum resources with each other. A nash bargaining solution based decision strategy is also devised to ensure the fairness of resource sharing. Extensive numerical evaluation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed models and mechanisms.
Multi-layer transport networks that utilize sub-lambda paths over a wavelength path have been shown to be effective in accommodating traffic with various levels of granularity. For different service requirements, a virtualized network was proposed where the infrastructure is virtually sliced to accommodate different levels of reliability. On the other hand, network reconfiguration is a promising candidate for quasi-dynamic and multi-granular traffic. Reconfiguration, however, incurs some risks such as service disruption and fluctuations in delay. There has not yet been any study on accommodating and reconfiguring paths according to different service classes in multi-layer transport networks. In this paper, we propose differentiated reconfiguration to address the trade-off relationship between accommodation efficiency and disruption risk in virtualized multi-layer transport networks that considers service classes defined as a combination of including or excluding a secondary path and allowing or not allowing reconfiguration. To implement the proposed network, we propose a multi-layer redundant path accommodation design and reconfiguration algorithm. A reliability evaluation algorithm is also introduced. Numerical evaluations show that when all classes are divided equally, equipment cost can be reduced approximately by 6%. The proposed reconfigurable networks are shown to be a cost effective solution that maintains reliability.
Router virtualization is becoming more common as a method that uses network (NW) equipment effectively and robustly similar to server virtualization. Edge routers, which are gateways of core NWs, should be virtualized because they have many functions and resources just as servers do. To virtualize edge routers, a metro NW, which is a wide area layer-2 NW connecting each user's residential gateway to edge routers, must trace dynamic edge router re-allocation by changing the route of each Ethernet flow. Therefore, we propose a scalable centralized control architecture of a virtual layer-2 switch on a metro NW to trace virtual router re-allocation and use metro NW equipment effectively. The proposed scalable control architecture improves the centralized route control performance by processing in parallel on a flow-by-flow basis taking into account route information even in the worst case where edge routers fail. In addition, the architecture can equalize the load among parallel processes dynamically by using two proposed load re-allocation methods to increase the route control performance stably while minimizing the amount of resources for the control. We evaluate the scalability of the proposed architecture through theoretical analysis and experiments on a prototype and show that the proposed architecture increases the number of flows accommodated in a metro NW. Moreover, we evaluate the load re-allocation methods through simulation and show that they can evenly distribute the load among parallel processes. Finally, we show that the proposed architecture can be applied to not only large-scale metro NWs but also to data center NWs, which have recently become an important type of large-scale layer-2 NW.
Many public cloud datacenters have adopted the Edge-Overlay model which supports virtual switch-based network virtualization using IP tunneling. However, software-implemented virtual switches can cause performance degradation because the packet processing load can concentrate on a particular CPU core. As a result, such load concentration decreases and destabilizes the performance of virtual networks. Although multi-queue functions like Receive Side Scaling (RSS) can distribute the load onto multiple CPU cores, they still have performance problems such as IRQ core collision between priority flows as well as competitive resource use between host and guest machines for received packet processing. In this paper, we propose Virtual Switch Extension (VSE) that adaptively determines CPU core assignment for SoftIRQ to prevent performance degradation. VSE supports two types of SoftIRQ core selection mechanisms, on-the-fly or predetermined. In the on-the-fly mode, VSE selects a SoftIRQ core based on current CPU load to exploit low-loaded CPU resources. In the predetermined mode, SoftIRQ cores are assigned in advance to differentiate the performance of priority flows. This paper describes a basic architecture and implementation of VSE and how VSE assigns a SoftIRQ cores. Moreover, we evaluate fundamental throughput of various CPU assignment models in the predetermined mode. Finally, we evaluate the performance of a priority VM in two VM usecases, the client-usecase which is receive-oriented and the router-usecase which performs bi-directional communications. In the client-usecase, the throughput of the priority VM was improved by 31% compared with RSS when the priority VM had one dedicated core. In the router-usecase, the throughput was improved by 29% when three dedicated cores were provided for the VM.
An L2-in-L3 tunneling technology plays an important role in network virtualization based on the concept of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). VXLAN (Virtual eXtensible LAN) and NVGRE (Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation) protocols are being widely used in public cloud datacenters. These protocols resolve traditional VLAN problems such as a limitation of the number of virtual networks, however, their network performances are low without dedicated hardware acceleration. Although STT (Stateless Transport Tunneling) achieves far better performance, it has pragmatic problems in that STT packets can be dropped by network middleboxes like stateful firewalls because of modified TCP header semantics. In this paper, we propose yet another layer 4 protocol (Segment-oriented Connection-less Protocol, SCLP) for existing tunneling protocols. Our previous study revealed that the high-performance of STT mainly comes from 2-level software packet pre-reassembly before decapsulation. The SCLP header is designed to take advantage of such processing without modifying existing protocol semantics. We implement a VXLAN over SCLP tunneling and evaluate its performance by comparing with the original VXLAN (over UDP), NVGRE, Geneve, and STT. The results show that the throughput of the proposed method was comparable to STT and almost 70% higher than that of other protocols.
In OpenFlow, data and control plane are decoupled from switches or routers. While the data plane resides in the switches or routers, the control plane might be moved into one or more external servers (controllers). In this article, we propose verification mechanisms for the data plane functionality of switches. The latter consists of two parts: (1) Flow-Match Header part (to match a flow of incoming packets) and (2) action part (e.g., to forward incoming packets to an outgoing port). We propose a mechanism to verify the Flow-Match Header part of the data plane. The mechanism can be executed at the controller, or on an additional device or server (or virtual machines) attached to the network. Deploying a virtual machine (VM) or server for verification may decrease the load of the controller and/or consumed bandwidth between the controller and a switch. We propose a heuristic to place external verification devices or VMs in a network such that the verification time can be minimized. Verification time with respect to consumed resources are evaluated through emulation experiments. Results confirm that the verification time using the proposed heuristic is indeed shortened significantly, while requiring low bandwidth resources.
This paper analyzes the impact of directional antennas in improving the transmission capacity, defined as the maximum allowable spatial node density of successful transmissions multiplied by their data rate with a given outage constraint, in wireless networks. We consider the case where the gain Gm for the mainlobe of beamwidth can scale at an arbitrarily large rate. Under the beamwidth scaling model, the transmission capacity is analyzed for all path-loss attenuation regimes for the following two network configurations. In dense networks, in which the spatial node density increases with the antenna gain Gm, the transmission capacity scales as Gm4/α, where α denotes the path-loss exponent. On the other hand, in extended networks of fixed node density, the transmission capacity scales logarithmically in Gm. For comparison, we also show an ideal antenna model where there is no sidelobe beam. In addition, computer simulations are performed, which show trends consistent with our analytical behaviors. Our analysis sheds light on a new understanding of the fundamental limit of outage-constrained ad hoc networks operating in the directional mode.
This paper proposes a network clock system that detects degradation in the frequency accuracy of network clocks distributed across a network and finds the sources of the degradation. This system uses two factors to identify degradation in frequency accuracy and an algorithm that finds degradation sources by integrating and analyzing the evaluation results gathered from the entire network. Many frequency stability measurement systems have been proposed, and most are based on time synchronization protocols. These systems also realize avoidance of frequency degradation and identification of the sources of the degradation. Unfortunately, the use of time synchronization protocols is impractical if the service provider, such as NTT, has already installed a frequency synchronization system; the provider must replace massive amounts of equipment with new devices that support the time synchronization protocols. Considering the expenditure of installment, this is an excessive burden on service providers. Therefore, a new system that can detect of frequency degradation in network clocks and identify the degradation causes without requiring new equipment is strongly demanded. The proposals made here are implemented by the installation of new circuit cards in current equipment and installing a server that runs the algorithm. This proposed system is currently being installed in NTT's network.
High gain extinction ratio and stable control of the phase in phase sensitive amplification are fundamental to realize either phase regeneration or quadrature squeezing of phase modulated signals in an efficient and robust manner. In this paper, we show that a combination of our previously demonstrated “sideband-assisted” dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier with a gain extinction ratio of more than 25dB, and a phase-locked loop based stabilization technique, enable efficient QPSK quadrature squeezing. Its stable operation is exploited to realize phase de-multiplexing of QPSK signals into BPSK tributaries. The phase de-multiplexed signals are evaluated through measurement of constellation diagrams, eye diagrams and more importantly, BER curves. The de-multiplexed BPSK signals exhibited an OSNR penalty of less than 1dB compared to the back-to-back BPSK signals.
Heterogeneous hetworks (HetNets) have been introduced as an emerging technology in order to meet the increasing demand for mobile data. HetNets are a combination of multi-layer networks such as macrocells and small cells. In such networks, users may suffer significant cross-layer interference. To manage this interference, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has introduced enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) techniques. Almost Blank SubFrame (ABSF) is one of the time-domain techniques used in eICIC solutions. We propose a dynamically optimal Signal-to-Interference-and-Noise Ratio (SINR)-based ABSF framework to ensure macro user performance while maintaining small user performance. We also study cooperative mechanisms to help small cells collaborate efficiently in order to reduce mutual interference. Simulations show that our proposed scheme achieves good performance and outperforms the existing ABSF frameworks.
In this paper, we propose a novel Autonomous Decentralized Control (ADC) scheme for indirectly controlling a system performance variable of large-scale and wide-area networks. In a large-scale and wide-area network, since it is impractical for any one node to gather full information of the entire network, network control must be realized by inter-node collaboration using information local to each node. Several critical network problems (e.g., resource allocation) are often formulated by a system performance variable that is an amount to quantify system state. We solve such problems by designing an autonomous node action that indirectly controls, via the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, the probability distribution of a system performance variable by using only local information. Analyses based on statistical mechanics confirm the effectiveness of the proposed node action. Moreover, the proposal is used to implement traffic-aware virtual machine placement control with load balancing in a data center network. Simulations confirm that it can control the system performance variable and is robust against system fluctuations. A comparison against a centralized control scheme verifies the superiority of the proposal.
Most P2PTV systems select a neighbor peer in an overlay network using RTT or a random method without considering the underlying network. Streaming traffic is shared over a network without localization awareness, which is a serious problem for Internet Service Providers. In this paper, we present a novel scheme to achieve P2PTV traffic localization by inserting delay into P2P streaming packets, so that the length of the inserted delay depends on the AS hop distance between a peer and its neighbor peer. Experiments conducted on a real network show that our proposed scheme can perform efficient traffic localization.
This paper proposes fast repairing methods that uses hierarchical software defined network controllers for recovering from massive failure in a large-scale IP over a wavelength-division multiplexing network. The network consists of multiple domains, and slave controllers are deployed in each domain. While each slave controller configures transport paths in its domain, the master controller manages end-to-end paths, which are established across multiple domains. For fast repair of intra-domain paths by the slave controllers, we define the optimization problem of path configuration order and propose a heuristic method, which minimizes the repair time to move from a disrupted state to a suboptimal state. For fast repair of end-to-end path through multiple domains, we also propose a network abstraction method, which efficiently manages the entire network. Evaluation results suggest that fast repair within a few minutes can be achieved by applying the proposed methods to the repairing scenario, where multiple links and nodes fail, in a 10,000-node network.
This paper studies the impact of integrating pricing with connection admission control (CAC) on the congestion management practices in contention-based wireless random access networks. Notably, when the network is free of charge, each self-interested user tries to occupy the channel as much as possible, resulting in the inefficient utilization of network resources. Pricing is therefore adopted as incentive mechanism to encourage users to choose their access probabilities considering the real-time network congestion level. A Stackelberg leader-follower game is formulated to analyze the competitive interaction between the service provider and the users. In particular, each user chooses the access probability that optimizes its payoff, while the self-interested service provider decides whether to admit or to reject the user's connection request in order to optimize its revenue. The stability of the Stackelberg leader-follower game in terms of convergence to the Nash equilibrium is established. The proposed CAC scheme is completely distributed and can be implemented by individual access points using only local information. Compared to the existing schemes, the proposed scheme achieves higher revenue gain, higher user payoff, and higher QoS performance.
New payment technologies are coming that will raise user convenience. To support automatic hands-free payment, merchant devices will collect customer's information from the cloud of payment service providers or customer's smart phones, which should be removed after the transaction. Using Jaccard containment, we propose a proactive security approach of cleaning personal data at merchant-side point-of-sale terminals. We also propose a sampling method to reduce communication overhead by several orders of magnitude.
This paper proposes a new method that combines signal modulation and FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) simulations to reduce the computation time in multiple-antenna analysis. In this method, signals are modulated so as to maintain orthogonality among the excited signals; multiple antennas are excited at the same time. This means just one FDTD simulation is needed whereas the conventional method demands as many simulations as there are transmitting antennas. The simulation of a 2×2 multi-antenna system shows that the proposed method matches the performance of the conventional method even though its computation time is much shorter.
In this paper, a real-valued reweighted l1 norm minimization method based on data reconstruction in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is proposed. Exploiting the special structure of the received data, and through the received data reconstruction approach and unitary transformation technique, a one-dimensional real-valued received data matrix can be obtained for recovering the sparse signal. Then a weight matrix based on real-valued MUSIC spectrum is designed for reweighting l1 norm minimization to enhance the sparsity of solution. Finally, the DOA can be estimated by finding the non-zero rows in the recovered matrix. Compared with traditional l1 norm-based minimization methods, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed method.
This paper proposes a method that uses bistatic Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) radar to locate living-bodies. In this method, directions of living-bodies are estimated by the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method at the transmitter and receiver, where the Fourier transformed virtual Single-Input Multiple-Output (SIMO) channel matrix is used. Body location is taken as the intersection of the two directions. The proposal uses a single frequency and so has a great advantage over conventional methods that need a wide frequency band. Also, this method can be used in multipath-rich environments such as indoors. An experiment is performed in an indoor environment, and the MIMO channels yielded by various subject numbers and positions are measured. The result indicates that the proposed method can estimate multiple living-body locations with high accuracy, even in multipath environments.
A low-complexity time-frequency multiplex estimator and low-complexity equalizer transceiver design are proposed to combat the problems of RF impairment associated with zero-IF transceiver of multi-carrier systems. Moreover, the proposed preambles can estimate the transmitter (TX) in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalance, carrier frequency offset (CFO), and channel impulse response parameters. The proposed system has two parts. First, all parameters of the impairments are estimated by the designed time-frequency multiplex estimator. Second, the estimated parameters are used to compensate the above problems and detect the transmitted signal with low complexity. Simulation results confirm that the proposed estimator performs reliably with respect to IQ imbalance, CFO, and multipath fading channel effects.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) channel estimation is the key technique used in broadband wireless networks. The Doppler frequency caused by fast mobility environments will cause inter-carrier interference (ICI) and degrade the performance of OFDM systems. Due to the severe ICI, channel estimation becomes a difficult task in higher mobility scenarios. Our aim is to propose a pilot-aided channel estimation method that is robust to high Doppler frequency with low computational complexity and pilot overheads. In this paper, the time duration of each estimate covers multiple consecutive OFDM symbols, named a “window”. A close-form of polynomial channel modeling is derived. The proposed method is initialized to the least squares (LS) estimates of the channels corresponding to the time interval of the pilot symbols within the window. Then, the channel interpolation is performed in the entire window. The results of computer simulations and computation complexity evaluations show that the proposed technique is robust to high Doppler frequency with low computation complexity and low pilot overheads. Compared with the state-of-the-art method and some conventional methods, the new technique proposed here has much lower computational complexity while offering comparable performance.
The technique of partial transmit sequences (PTS) is effective in reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. However, the conventional PTS (CPTS) scheme has high computation complexity because it needs several inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) units and an optimization process to find the candidate signal with the lowest PAPR. In this paper, we propose a new low-complexity PTS scheme for OFDM systems, in which a hybrid subblock partition method (SPM) is used to reduce the complexity that results from the IFFT computations and the optimization process. Also, the PAPR reduction performance of the proposed PTS scheme is further enhanced by multiplying a selected subblock with a predefined phase rotation vector to form a new subblock. The time-domain signal of the new subblock can be obtained simply by performing a circularly-shift-left operation on the IFFT output of the selected subblock. Computer simulations show that the proposed PTS scheme achieves a PAPR reduction performance close to that of the CPTS scheme with the pseudo-random SPM, but with much lower computation complexity.
The dramatic growth in wireless data traffic has triggered the investigation of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems. Small cells will play a very important role in 5G to meet the 5G requirements in spectral efficiency, energy savings, etc. In this paper, we investigate low complexity millimeter-wave communication systems with uniform circular arrays (UCAs) in line-of-sight (LOS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, which are used in fixed wireless access such as small cell wireless backhaul for 5G. First, we demonstrate that the MIMO channel matrices for UCAs in LOS-MIMO channels are circulant matrices. Next, we provide a detailed derivation of the unified optimal antenna placement which makes MIMO channel matrices orthogonal for 3×3 and 4×4 UCAs in LOS channels. We also derive simple analytical expressions of eigenvalues and capacity as a function of array design (link range and array diameters) for the concerned systems. Finally, based on the properties of circulant matrices, we propose a high performance low complexity LOS-MIMO precoding system that combines forward error correction (FEC) codes and spatial interleaver with the fixed IDFT precoding matrix. The proposed precoding system for UCAs does not require the channel knowledge for estimating the precoding matrix at the transmitter under the LOS condition, since the channel matrices are circulant ones for UCAs. Simulation results show that the proposed low complexity system is robust to various link ranges and can attain excellent performance in strong LOS environments and channel estimation errors.
The hop-limited adaptive routing (HLAR) mechanism and its enhancement (EHLAR), both tailored for the packet-switched non-geostationary (NGEO) satellite networks, are proposed and evaluated. The proposed routing mechanisms exploit both the predictable topology and inherent multi-path property of the NGEO satellite networks to adaptively distribute the traffic via all feasible neighboring satellites. Specifically, both mechanisms assume that a satellite can send the packets to their destinations via any feasible neighboring satellites, thus the link via the neighboring satellite to the destination satellite is assigned a probability that is proportional to the effective transmission to the destination satellites of the link. The satellite adjusts the link probability based on the packet sending information observed locally for the HLAR mechanism or exchanged between neighboring satellites for the EHLAR mechanism. Besides, the path of the packets are bounded by the maximum hop number, thus avoiding the unnecessary over-detoured packets in the satellite networks. The simulation results corroborate the improved performance of the proposed mechanisms compared with the existing in the literature.