We introduce the design and deployment of the latest version of the VNode infrastructure, VNode-i. We present new extended VNode-i functions that offer high performance and provide convenient deep programmability to network developers. We extend resource abstraction to the transport network and achieve highly precise slice measurement for resource elasticity. We achieve precise resource isolation for VNode-i. We achieve coexistence of high performance and programmability. We also enhance AGW functions. In addition, we extend network virtualization from the core network to edge networks and terminals. In evaluation experiments, we deploy the enhanced VNode-i on the JGN-X testbed and evaluate its performance. We successfully create international federation slices across VNode-i, GENI, and Fed4FIRE. We also present experimental results on video streaming on a federated slice across VNode-i and GENI. Testbed experiments confirm the practicality of the enhanced VNode-i.
As the demand for higher transmission rates and spectral efficiency is steadily increasing, the research and development of novel mobile communication systems has gained momentum. This paper focuses on providing a comprehensive survey of research and development activities on fifth generation mobile communication systems in Japan. We try to survey a vast area of wireless communication systems and the developments that led to future 5G systems.
A link adaptation scheme is devised for vector-perturbation (VP) zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) MIMO precoding and a link-adaptable VP-ZFBF precoder is applied to multi-point three-dimensional (3D) beamformers to be used in mmWave-band wireless access systems. Channel coding schemes used in current systems, e.g., turbo codes, possess systematic code structures. The VP gain can thus be predicted by searching for perturbation vectors for the symbol vectors mapped from information bits. On the basis of this principle, we constructed an efficient iterative modulation-and-coding-set (MCS) selection procedure for VP-ZFBF precoding. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme suitably passed on the VP gain to the selection of an appropriate higher-rate MCS index and thus achieved high throughputs by incorporating with multi-point 3D-beamformers.
This study investigates a real-time joint channel and hyperparameter estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing mobile communications. The channel frequency response of the pilot subcarrier and its fixed hyperparameters (such as channel statistics) are estimated using a Liu and West filter (LWF), which is based on the state-space model and sequential Monte Carlo method. For the first time, to our knowledge, we demonstrate that the conventional LWF biases the hyperparameter due to a poor estimate of the likelihood caused by overfitting in noisy environments. Moreover, this problem cannot be solved by conventional smoothing techniques. For this, we modify the conventional LWF and regularize the likelihood using a Kalman smoother. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed via numerical analysis. When both of the Doppler frequency and delay spread hyperparameters are unknown, the conventional LWF significantly degrades the performance, sometimes below that of least squares estimation. By avoiding the hyperparameter estimation failure, our method outperforms the conventional approach and achieves good performance near the lower bound. The coding gain in our proposed method is at most 10 dB higher than that in the conventional LWF. Thus, the proposed method improves the channel and hyperparameter estimation accuracy. Derived from mathematical principles, our proposal is applicable not only to wireless technology but also to a broad range of related areas such as machine learning and econometrics.
We investigate through simulation simultaneous linear and nonlinear impairments using a realistic reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexer (ROADM) model while considering optical filtering and in-band coherent crosstalk at each ROADM and the nonlinear interfering effects from neighbor superchannels with the QPSK or 16QAM modulation format.
A demonstration of power enhancement by nonlinear oscillation in a millimeter-sized electrostatic vibrational energy harvester for the future Internet of Things is presented. To enable nonlinearity in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices, we selected a gold spring as a component of the MEMS structure for its lower Young's modulus than conventional materials, a ductile characteristic, and an electrical conductivity. The mechanical characteristics of the fabricated MEMS device related to the nonlinear phenomenon were examined. The charging characteristics of an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE) electret film for electrostatic induction were also evaluated. Nonlinear oscillation for the millimeter-sized energy harvester with the ETFE electret was confirmed experimentally by applying external vibration. The oscillation resulted in a bandwidth two times broader than that by linear oscillation. The normalized harvester effectiveness of the nonlinear oscillation was 5.1 times higher than that of the linear one.
In this paper, we propose a multi-cell structure backscatter based wireless-powered communication network (WPCN) where a number of backscatter cells are locally separated, each containing a subset of users around a carrier emitter. The multi-cell structure backscatter based WPCN can be implemented in two ways, namely time-division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM). Here users harvest energy from the carrier signal transmitted by the carrier emitter, and then transmit their own information in a passive way via the reflection of the carrier signal using frequency-shift keying modulation. We characterize the energy-free condition and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) outage zone in a backscatter based WPCN. Also, a backscatter based harvest-then-transmit protocol is adopted to maximize the sum-throughput of all users by optimally allocating time for energy harvesting and information transmission. Numerical results demonstrate that the backscatter based WPCN ensures an increased long-range coverage and a diminished SNR outage zone compared to conventional radio based WPCNs. Also, comparing the two types of multi-cell structure backscatter based WPCN, TDM within each backscatter cell and FDM across backscatter cells versus FDM within each backscatter cell and TDM across backscatter cells, numerical results confirm that which one yields a better performance.
In this paper, we propose an overloaded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal detection scheme with slab decoding and lattice reduction (LR). The proposed scheme firstly splits the transmitted signal vector into two parts, the post-voting vector composed of the same number of signal elements as that of receive antennas, and the pre-voting vector composed of the remaining elements. Secondly, it reduces the candidates of the pre-voting vector using slab decoding and determines the post-voting vectors for each pre-voting vector candidate by LR-aided minimum mean square error (MMSE)-successive interference cancellation (SIC) detection. From the performance analysis of the proposed scheme, we derive an upper bound of the error probability and show that it can achieve the full diversity order. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve almost the same performance as the optimal ML detection while reducing the required computational complexity.
In the conventional cellular macrocell implementation strategy, the main base station transmits the radio signals in the omnidirectional manner in order to provide a wide range of cellular transmission to the users. In reality, however, the users move from one place to another depending on their activities, hence, sometimes this creates areas where no user exists inside the macrocell. Nevertheless, the base station continues to transmit the radio signals to all the coverage areas due to its involuntary manner, thus causing waste of energy. In our previous work, an energy efficient LTE macrocell base station scheme based on hourly user location distribution, which utilized opportunistic beamforming, was proposed in order to provide the cellular transmission only to the area where the user density is high. The drawback of this scheme was that there were many users who cannot receive the cellular transmission because of the limitation of the beamforming shape. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, a new energy efficient macrocell strategy will be proposed. Here, additional low power consumption femtocell access points are deployed inside the macrocell to support the energy efficient opportunistic beamforming based on the hourly user location distribution. Concretely, the femtocell access points are woken up only when the active calling users exist inside its range. The proposed new strategy will be evaluated in terms of the hourly successful calling user ratio, the total power consumption and the hourly average downlink throughput compared with the previously proposed beamforming transmission strategy and the conventional omnidirectional transmission. The results will show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in providing an energy efficient cellular macrocell system with high quality cellular services.
This article describes an approximate model of a group of cells in the wireless 4G network with implemented load balancing mechanism. An appropriately modified model of Erlang's Ideal Grading is used to model this group of cells. The model makes it possible to take into account limited availability of resources of individual cells to multi-rate elastic and adaptive traffic streams generated by Erlang and Engset sources. The developed solution allows the basic traffic characteristics in the considered system to be determined, i.e. the occupancy distribution and the blocking probability. Because of the approximate nature of the proposed model, the results obtained based on the model were compared with the results of a digital simulation. The present study validates the adopted assumptions of the proposed model.
We propose a highly sensitive carrier-recovery system for in-line amplification for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signals in a periodically poled LiNbO3 based phase sensitive amplifier (PSA). We applied a discrete two-stage second harmonic generation/difference frequency generation (SHG/DFG) parametric conversion scheme to enhance the sensitivity of the carrier recovery. Owing to this two-stage SHG/DFG scheme, the conversion efficiency of the seed light for the injection locking needed for the pump generation can be improved compared to that of the cascaded SHG/DFG scheme. The new discrete scheme might also prevent the SNR degradation of the seed light caused by the ASE from the booster EDFA compared with the previous system that used the cascaded scheme. This novel carrier-recovery system exhibits high sensitivity with the SNR of over 7.8dB of the seed light, while tapped signal power is as low as -50dBm, which is low enough for injection locking. The new in-line PSA with this carrier-recovery system exhibits high gain of over 11dB. Since we successfully obtained the high gain property, we tried multistage amplification taking into account practical use and achieved it with both a high gain of 20dB and a noise figure that is almost as low as the standard quantum limit of a PSA.
To substantially alleviate the human blockage problem in mmWave communications, this paper proposes a proactive handover system based on human blockage prediction using RGB and depth (RGB-D) cameras. The proposed scheme uses RGB-D camera images to estimate the mobility of pedestrians and to predict when blockage will occur. On the basis of this information, the proposed system transfers a mobile station (STA) communicating with one wireless BS (base station) to another BS before human blockage occurs and thus avoids blockage-induced throughput degradation. This paper presents performance modeling of both proactive handover scheme and reactive handover scheme which is based on the received power level. A numerical evaluation reveals conditions under which the proactive handover scheme achieves higher spectral efficiency compared to reactive scheme. In addition, using IEEE 802.11ad-based wireless local area network (WLAN) devices, a testbed for implementing the proposed system is built. The innovative experimental results demonstrate that the proactive handover system can considerably reduce the duration of human blockage-induced degradation of throughput performance relative to the reactive scheme.
In this paper, we propose a single-channel speech enhancement method for a push-to-talk enabled wireless communication device. The proposed method is based on adaptive weighted β-order spectral amplitude estimation under speech presence uncertainty and enhanced instantaneous phase estimation in order to achieve flexible and effective noise reduction while limiting the speech distortion due to different noise conditions. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method delivers higher voice quality and intelligibility than the reference methods in various noise environments.
Deploying a group of mobile sensor (MS) nodes to monitor a moving phenomenon in an unknown and open area includes a lot of challenges if the phenomenon moves quickly and due to the limited capabilities of MS nodes in terms of mobility, sensing and communication ranges. To address these challenges and achieve a high weighted sensing coverage, in this paper, we propose a new algorithm for moving-phenomenon monitoring, namely VirFID-MP (Virtual Force (VF)-based Interest-Driven phenomenon monitoring with Mobility Prediction). In VirFID-MP, the future movement of the phenomenon is first predicted using the MS nodes' movement history data. Then, the prediction information is used to calculate a virtual force, which is utilized to speed up MS nodes toward the moving phenomenon. In addition, a prediction-based oscillation-avoidance algorithm is incorporated with VirFID-MP movement control to reduce the nodes' energy consumption. Our simulation results show that VirFID-MP outperforms original VirFID schemes in terms of weighted coverage efficiency and energy consumption.
Energy-efficient resource allocation is considered in sensing-based spectrum sharing for cooperative cognitive radio networks (CCRNs). The secondary user first listens to the spectrum allocated to the primary user (PU) to detect the PU state and then initiates data transmission with two power levels based on the sensing decision (e.g., idle or busy). Under this model, the optimization problem of maximizing energy efficiency (EE) is formulated over the transmission power and sensing time subject to some practical limitations, such as the individual power constraint for secondary source and relay, the quality of service (QoS) for the secondary system, and effective protection for the PU. Given the complexity of this problem, two simplified versions (i.e., perfect and imperfect sensing cases) are studied in this paper. We transform the considered problem in fractional form into an equivalent optimization problem in subtractive form. Then, for perfect sensing, the Lagrange dual decomposition and iterative algorithm are applied to acquire the optimal power allocation policy; for imperfect sensing, an exhaustive search and iterative algorithm are proposed to obtain the optimal sensing time and corresponding power allocation strategy. Finally, numerical results show that the energy-efficient design greatly improves EE compared with the conventional spectrum-efficient design.
We propose a simple configuration for colorless and directionless (CD) reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers that enables ultra-low contention add/drop operation to be achieved. In the configuration, we apply a combination of multiple small-port-count CD add/drop banks (CD banks) and round-robin CD bank assignment. Evaluation results show that the proposed configuration can substantially reduce intra-node contention rate, which is less than 0.1%. We also find that the proposed configuration can improve the utilization efficiency of wavelength resources and transponders. We discuss the mechanism of how the proposed configuration reduces intra-node contention by analyzing the status of wavelength assignments in direction ports and CD banks.
Many research efforts are being focused upon the design of dynamic Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) schemes for macrocell/picocell heterogeneous networks employing Cell Range Expansion (CRE). In order to protect the expanded Pico User Equipments (ePUEs) located in the CRE region from severe Macro Base Station (MBS) interference in downlink, the conventional methods reduce the transmit power of the MBS in the Almost Blank Subframes (ABSs), where ePUEs can be scheduled. However, this severely limits the amount of usable resources/power for the MBS as compared to Resource Block (RB)-based dynamic allocation. Instead, we propose a self-organized RB-based dynamic resource allocation method. Based on the proposed partial Channel State Information (CSI) sharing, the MBS obtains ePUEs' CSI and predicts their RB allocation. Then, the MBS reduces its transmit power in RBs where the ePUEs' allocation probability is estimated to be high. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves excellent macrocell/picocell performance trade-offs, even when taking into account the overhead increase due to the partial CSI sharing.
Recently, multihop wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely developed and applied to energy efficient data collections from environments by establishing reliable transmission radio links and employing data aggregation algorithms, which can eliminate redundant transmissions and provide fusion information. In this paper, energy efficiency which consists of not only energy consumptions but also the amount of received data by the base station, as the performance metric to evaluate network utilities is presented for achieving energy efficient data collections. In order to optimize energy efficiency for improvements of network utilization, we firstly establish a graphical game theoretic model for energy efficiency in multihop WSNs, considering message length, practical energy consumptions and packet success probabilities. Afterwards, we propose a graphical protocol for performance optimization from Nash equilibrium of the graphical game theory. The approach also consists of the distributed protocol for generating optimum tree networks in practical WSNs. The experimental results show energy efficient multihop communications can be achieved by optimum tree networks of the approach. The quantitative evaluation and comparisons with related work are presented for the metric with respect to network energy consumptions and the amount of received data by the base station. The performances of our proposal are improved in all experiments. As an example, our proposal can achieve up to about 52% energy efficiency more than collection tree protocol (CTP). The corresponding tree structure is provided for the experiment.
A novel optical high order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmission system for high-speed short links is described. Dual-polarization (DP) QAM and twin local lights are generated from one light source in the system, and these lightwaves are simultaneously transmitted via standard single mode fiber. The receiver can be constructed simply because it does not require a coherent light source under wavelength control. The system enables a 3.1 Gbaud DP-16-QAM signal to be successfully demodulated after 80-km transmission without using an optical dispersion compensator. It also achieves high tolerance against phase noise in the signal light source.
A virtual network edge using live migration of virtualized network functions (VNFs) can be expected to reduce computation time and save resources instead of conventional network edge routers that have complex functions. Wavelength-division-multiplexing/time-division-multiplexing (WDM/TDM) photonic switching technology for metro ring networks is proposed to provide fast bandwidth resource allocation for rapidly changing service-flow demand. However, there are no reports on the coexistence of high-speed path switching for live migration with fast bandwidth resource allocation, as far as we know. We propose an architecture that achieves both high-speed path switching and fast dynamic bandwidth allocation control for service flows with in-service live migration. The feature of this architecture is that the VNF for the virtual edge corresponds to each 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network (10G-EPON) and fast route change can be achieved with a simple point-to-point path between VNFs and optical line terminals (OLTs). The second feature is that the live migration of a VNF is limited to a part of it that contains a larger number of subscribers. Owing to the reduction in the number of total paths, fast resource allocation can be provided.
We create a practical method to set the segment size of the Welch FFT for wideband and long-term spectrum usage measurements in the context of hierarchical dynamic spectrum access (DSA). An energy detector (ED) based on the Welch FFT can be used to detect the presence or absence of primary user (PU) signal and to estimate the duty cycle (DC). In signal detection with the Welch FFT, segment size is an important design parameter since it determines both the detection performance and the frequency resolution. Between these two metrics, there is a trade-off relationship which can be controlled by adjusting the segment size. To cope with this trade-off relationship, we define an optimum and, more easy to analyze sub-optimum segment size design criterion. An analysis of the sub-optimum segment size criterion reveals that the resulting segment size depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the DC. Since in practice both SNR and DC are unknown, proper segment setting is difficult. To overcome this problem, we propose an adaptive segment size selection (ASSS) method that uses noise floor estimation outputs. The proposed method does not require any prior knowledge on the SNR or the DC. Simulation results confirm that the proposed ASSS method matches the performance achieved with the optimum design criterion.
When a massive network disruption occurs, repair of the damaged network takes time, and the recovery process involves multiple stages. We propose a fast and flow-controlled multi-stage network recovery method for determining the pareto-optimal recovery order of failed physical components reflecting the balance requirement between maximizing the total amount of traffic on all logical paths, called total network flow, and providing adequate logical path flows. The pareto-optimal problem is formulated by mixed integer linear programming (MILP). A heuristic algorithm, called the grouped-stage recovery (GSR), is also introduced to solve the problem when the problem formulated by MILP is computationally intractable in a large-scale failure. The effectiveness of the proposed method was numerically evaluated. The results show that the pareto-optimal recovery order can be determined from the balance between total network flow and adequate logical path flows, the allocated minimum bandwidth of the logical path can be drastically improved while maximizing total network flow, and the proposed method with GSR is applicable to large-scale failures because a nearly optimal recovery order with less than 10% difference rate can be determined within practical computation time.
Information-Centric Networking (ICN) treats contents as first class citizens and adopts name-based routing for content distribution and retrieval. Content names rather than IP addresses are directly used for routing. However, due to the location-independent naming and the huge namespace, name-based routing faces scalability and efficiency issues including large routing tables and high path stretches. This paper proposes a universal Scalable Name-based Geometric Routing scheme (SNGR), which is a careful synthesis of geometric routing and name resolution. To provide scalable and efficient underlying routing, a universal geometric routing framework (GRF) is proposed. Any geometric routing scheme can be used directly for name resolution based on GRF. To implement an overlay name resolution system, SNGR utilizes a bi-level grouping design. With this design, a resolution node that is close to the consumer can always be found. Our theoretical analyses guarantee the performance of SNGR, and experiments show that SNGR outperforms similar routing schemes in terms of node state, path stretch, and reliability.
This paper presents a novel simultaneous decoupling and matching technique for transmitting (Tx) and receiving (Rx) ports in short-range multiple-input multiple-output (SR-MIMO) systems. The principal difference with conventional decoupling and matching network (DMN) approaches is that the proposed technique considers strong mutual coupling between closely-positioned Tx/Rx arrays, and the S-parameter variation due to the presence of each other's array. This technique has two stages; first, 180-degree hybrid couplers are connected to both Tx/Rx ports of a plane-symmetrical MIMO system. This decouples both Tx/Rx ports, and moreover, channels between them are orthogonalized. That is, the MIMO system is transformed into multi orthogonalized single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Second, Tx/Rx ports of each orthogonalized SISO system are simultaneously matched based on conjugate matching theory. Consequently, the transmission power of the short-range MIMO system is maximized. Numerical results show that the proposed technique realizes higher channel capacity than the conventional DMN; indeed it achieves the theoretically possible capacity. In addition to theoretical analyses, we provide an example for microstrip line (MSL) circuit implementation. This MSL model offers good simultaneous decoupling and matching performance yielding channel capacity comparable to that of an ideally-designed circuit model. This validates the implementation feasibility of the proposed technique.
We study the correlation matrix element properties in array signal processing and apply them to a Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) estimation problem of coherent or highly-correlated sources for a Uniform Linear Array (ULA). The proposed algorithm is generally based on the relation between the elements of the array correlation matrix and does not need an eigendecomposition, iteration, or angular peak-search. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated through a computer simulation.
This paper proposes an interference suppression scheme based on linear combining for multiple relay systems. Interference from base stations and relays in neighboring cells degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of mobile stations (MSs) near cell boundaries. To suppress such interference for half-duplex relay systems, the proposed scheme linearly combines received signals of the first and second phases at MS. Without channel state information (CSI) feedback, weight coefficients for the linear combining are estimated by the recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm, which requires only information on preamble symbols of the target MS. Computer simulations of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission under two-cell and frequency selective fading conditions are conducted. It is demonstrated that the RLS-based linear combining with decision directed estimation is superior to the RLS-based linear combining using only the preamble and can outperform the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) combining with estimated CSI when the number of preamble symbols is two and four that correspond to the minimum requirements for MMSE and RLS, respectively.
In heterogeneous networks, network selection is an important task for reconfigurable mobile devices (MDs). In the reconfigurable MD architecture that has been standardized by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the network selection functionality is handled by a software component called Mobility Policy Manager (MPM). In this paper, we present an implementation of the MPM whereby a reconfigurable MD conforming to the ETSI standard can select the most appropriate radio access network (RAN) to use. We implemented a reconfigurable MD test-bed compliant with the ETSI standard, and show that the network selection driven by the MPM enhances the throughput of the receiving MD by about 26% compared to the arbitrary network selection provided by a conventional reconfigurable MD without the functionality of MPM, verifying the functionality of the MPM.
This paper presents an adaptive interference-aware receiver for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) downlink systems in wireless local area network (WLAN) systems. The MU-MIMO downlink technique is one of the key techniques that are newly applied to WLAN systems in order to support a very high throughput. However, the simultaneous communication of several users causes inter-user interference (IUI), which adversely affects receivers. Therefore, in order to prevent IUI, a precoding technique is defined at the transmitter based on feedback from the receiver. Unfortunately, however, the receiver still suffers from interference, because the precoding technique is prone to practical errors from the feedback quantization and subcarrier grouping scheme. Whereas ordinary detection schemes are available to mitigate such interference, such schemes are unsuitable because of their low performance or high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose an switching algorithm based on the norm ratio between an effective channel matrix for the desired signal and that of the interfering signals. Simulation results based on the IEEE 802.11ac standard show that the proposed algorithm can achieve near-optimal performance with a 70% reduction in computational complexity.
In the European satellite broadcasting specifications, the symbol rate and the carrier frequency are not regulated. Furthermore, the first generation format DVB-S does not have any control signals. In a practical environment, the received signal condition is not stable due to the imperfect reception environment, i.e., unterminated receiver ports, cheap indoor wiring cables etc. These issues prevent correct detection of the satellite signals. For this reason, the conventional signal detection method uses brute force search for detecting the received signal's cyclostationarity, which is an extremely time-consuming approach. A coarse estimation method of the carrier frequency and the bandwidth was proposed by us based on the power spectrum. We extend this method to create a new method for detecting satellite broadcasting signals, which can significantly reduce the search range. In other words, the proposed method can detect the signals in a relatively short time. In this paper, the proposed method is applied to signals received in an actual environment. Our analysis shows that the proposed method can effectively reduce the detection time at almost a same detection performance.
Interference alignment (IA) is a method to improve the capacity of cell-edge users and thus attracts an intense research interest. We focus on the IA extended to the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interference network. In this method, each coordinated transmitter generates beamforming vectors to align interference from different transmitters into confined subspace at each receiver. Then, using singular value decomposition (SVD) with the relative magnitude coefficients, transmitters calculate the beamforming vectors and the received vectors. However, in this method it is difficult to determine the value of the relative magnitude coefficients so that the system capacity is improved, because it is necessary to solve the non-linear function of multivariable. In this paper, we propose a design method of the relative magnitude coefficients of interference channels to improve system capacity using Brent's method on the K-User MIMO interference channel (MIMO-IFC). The proposed method can improve system capacity, though the system complexity increases due to Brent's method that requires multiple SVD calculation to calculate the null space. Thus, instead of using SVD, we introduce the complexity reduction method to calculate the null space of the matrix. Furthermore, we extend the proposed method to be applicable for more common systems where all base stations have the same number of transmit antennas. Through simulation, we show that the proposed method achieves a higher system capacity than the conventional one. We also show that the method that calculates the null space needs much lower complexity than SVD. In addition, we show that the proposed design method reduces the degradation of the system capacity caused by the interference not eliminated, and achieves the fairness of capacities among users for an increase of the number of design coefficients.
This paper presents an improved Mobile WiMAX handover (HO) algorithm for real-time application by using a Link_Going_Down (LGD) trigger technique. Mobile WiMAX is a wireless networking system based on the IEEE 802.16e standard. In order to support phone mobility, a HO scheme of some kind must be adopted, and in this standard hard handover (HHO) is defined as mandatory. Since, the fact that there will be a pause in data transmission during the HO process, delay in communication will occur. Thus, the HO time (>50ms) can degrade system performance when implemented in real-time applications such as Video Streaming or Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Additionally, the HHO takes approximately 300ms because the HO process doesn't start at the best point. The HHO standard considers only the received signal strength (RSS) to decide initiation. The mobile station velocity is also an important factor in HO initiation that should not be neglected. To deal with the problems of handover delay, this paper proposes a new HO scheme. This scheme adopts the dynamic HO threshold that used LGD technique to define the starting HO process. This technique is based on the RSSD (measured by the Doppler Effect technique), mobile velocities and handover time. Consequently, the HO process starts at the right time and HO time is reduced (<50 ms) and the network resource utilization is enhanced to be more efficient.
August 05, 2016 Due to the maintenance of online payment system‚ article purchase with credit card will be unavailable as following schedule. If you may encounter the maintenance difficulties‚ please try again after the maintenance is completed. Thanks for your kind cooperation. Details
May 18, 2016 We have released “J-STAGE BETA site”.
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.