IEICE Transactions on Communications
Online ISSN : 1745-1345
Print ISSN : 0916-8516
Current issue
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
Regular Section
  • Shiqing QIAN, Wenping GE, Yongxing ZHANG, Pengju ZHANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamental Theories for Communications
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 788-796
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 24, 2021
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    Sparse code division multiple access (SCMA) is a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technology that can improve frequency band utilization and allow many users to share quite a few resource elements (REs). This paper uses the modulation of lattice theory to develop a systematic construction procedure for the design of SCMA codebooks under Gaussian channel environments that can achieve near-optimal designs, especially for cases that consider large-scale SCMA parameters. However, under the condition of large-scale SCMA parameters, the mother constellation (MC) points will overlap, which can be solved by the method of the partial dimensions transformation (PDT). More importantly, we consider the upper bounded error probability of the signal transmission in the AWGN channels, and design a codeword allocation method to reduce the inter symbol interference (ISI) on the same RE. Simulation results show that under different codebook sizes and different overload rates, using two different message passing algorithms (MPA) to verify, the codebook proposed in this paper has a bit error rate (BER) significantly better than the reference codebooks, moreover the convergence time does not exceed that of the reference codebooks.

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  • Sougo SHIMIZU, Chao ZHANG, Fumihiko ITO
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fiber-Optic Transmission for Communications
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 797-804
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2021
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    This paper describes a method to evaluate the modulated waveforms output by a high-speed external phase modulator over a wide wavelength range by using linear optical sampling (LOS) and a wavelength-swept light source. The phase-modulated waveform is sampled by LOS together with the reference signal before modulation, and the modulation waveform is observed by removing the phase noise of the light source extracted from the reference signal. In this process, the frequency offset caused by the optical-path length difference between the measurement and reference interferometers is removed by digital signal processing. A pseudo-random binary-sequence modulated signal is observed with a temporal resolution of 10ps. We obtained a dynamic range of ∼40dB for the measurement bandwidth of 10 nm. When the measurement bandwidth is expanded to entire C-Band (∼35nm), the dynamic ranges of 37∼46dB were observed, depending on the wavelengths. The measurement time was sub-seconds throughout the experiment.

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  • Shimpei SHIMIZU, Takayuki KOBAYASHI, Takeshi UMEKI, Takushi KAZAMA, Ko ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fiber-Optic Transmission for Communications
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 805-813
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 17, 2022
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    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) is an all-optical signal processing technique for mitigating fiber nonlinearity and is promising for building cost-efficient fiber networks with few optic-electric-optic conversions and long amplification spacing. In lumped amplified systems, OPC has a little nonlinearity mitigation efficiency for nonlinear distortion induced by cross-phase modulation (XPM) due to the asymmetry of power and chromatic dispersion (CD) maps during propagation in transmission fiber. In addition, the walk-off of XPM-induced noise becomes small due to the CD compensation effect of OPC, so the deterministic nonlinear distortion increases. Therefore, lumped amplified transmission systems with OPC are more sensitive to channel spacing than conventional systems. In this paper, we show the channel spacing dependence of NZ-DSF transmission using amplification repeater with OPC. Numerical simulations show comprehensive characteristics between channel spacing and CD in a 100-Gbps/λ WDM signal. An experimental verification using periodically poled LiNbO3-based OPC is also performed. These results suggest that channel spacing design is more important in OPC-assisted systems than in conventional dispersion-unmanaged systems.

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  • Mitsuki ITO, Fujun HE, Eiji OKI
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 814-832
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 17, 2022
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    This paper presents robust optimization models for minimizing the required backup capacity while providing probabilistic protection against multiple simultaneous failures of physical machines under uncertain virtual machine capacities in a cloud provider. If random failures occur, the required capacities for virtual machines are allocated to the dedicated backup physical machines, which are determined in advance. We consider two uncertainties: failure event and virtual machine capacity. By adopting a robust optimization technique, we formulate six mixed integer linear programming problems. Numerical results show that for a small size problem, our presented models are applicable to the case that virtual machine capacities are uncertain, and by using these models, we can obtain the optimal solution of the allocation of virtual machines under the uncertainty. A simulated annealing heuristic is presented to solve large size problems. By using this heuristic, an approximate solution is obtained for a large size problem.

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  • Yuki SHIMIZU, Tomotaka KIMURA, Jun CHENG
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 833-847
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 24, 2021
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    In this study, we consider fake message attacks in sparse mobile ad hoc networks, in which nodes are chronically isolated. In these networks, messages are delivered to their destination nodes using store-carry-forward routing, where they are relayed by some nodes. Therefore, when a node has messages in its buffer, it can falsify the messages easily. When malicious nodes exist in the network, they alter messages to create fake messages, and then they launch fake message attacks, that is, the fake messages are spread over the network. To analyze the negative effects of a fake message attack, we model the system dynamics without attack countermeasures using a Markov chain, and then formalize some performance metrics (i.e., the delivery probability, mean delivery delay, and mean number of forwarded messages). This analysis is useful for designing countermeasures. Moreover, we consider a hash-based countermeasure against fake message attacks using a hash of the message. Whenever a node that has a message and its hash encounters another node, it probabilistically forwards only one of them to the encountered node. By doing this, the message and the hash value can be delivered to the destination node via different relay nodes. Therefore, even if the destination node receives a fake message, it can verify the legitimacy of the received message. Through simulation experiments, we evaluate the effectiveness of the hash-based countermeasure.

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  • Akihiro YOSHITAKE, Masaharu TAKAHASHI
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 848-855
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 11, 2022
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    Currently, wireless power transmission technology is being developed for capsule endoscopes. By removing the battery, the capsule endoscope is miniaturized, the number of images that can be taken increases, and the risk of harmful substances leaking from the battery when it is damaged inside the body is avoided. Furthermore, diagnostic accuracy is improved by adjusting the directivity of radio waves according to the position of the capsule endoscope to improve efficiency and adjusting the number of images to be taken according to position by real-time position estimation. In this study, we report the result of position estimation in a high-definition numerical human body model and in an experiment on an electromagnetic phantom.

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  • Weichuang YU, Peiyu HE, Fan PAN, Ao CUI, Zili XU
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 856-865
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 29, 2021
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    To reduce mutual coupling of a two-level nested array (TLNA) with an even number of sensors, we propose an improved array configuration that exhibits all the good properties of the prototype optimal configuration under the constraint of a fixed number of sensors N and achieves reduction of mutual coupling. Compared with the prototype optimal TLNA (POTLNA), which inner level and outer level both have N/2 sensors, those of the improved optimal TLNA (IOTLNA) are N/2-1 and N/2+1. It is proved that the physical aperture and uniform degrees of freedom (uDOFs) of IOTLNA are the same as those of POTLNA, and the number of sensor pairs with small separations of IOTLNA is reduced. We also construct an improved optimal second-order super nested array (SNA) by using the IOTLNA as the parent nested array, termed IOTLNA-SNA, which has the same physical aperture and the same uDOFs, as well as the IOTLNA. Numerical simulations demonstrate the better performance of the improved array configurations.

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  • Menglong WU, Cuizhu QIN, Hongxia DONG, Wenkai LIU, Xiaodong NIE, Xicha ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 866-875
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 13, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In many screen to camera communication (S2C) systems, the barcode preprocessing method is a significant prerequisite because barcodes may be deformed due to various environmental factors. However, previous studies have focused on barcode detection under static conditions; to date, few studies have been carried out on dynamic conditions (for example, the barcode video stream or the transmitter and receiver are moving). Therefore, we present a detection and tracking method for dynamic barcodes based on a Siamese network. The backbone of the CNN in the Siamese network is improved by SE-ResNet. The detection accuracy achieved 89.5%, which stands out from other classical detection networks. The EAO reaches 0.384, which is better than previous tracking methods. It is also superior to other methods in terms of accuracy and robustness. The SE-ResNet in this paper improved the EAO by 1.3% compared with ResNet in SiamMask. Also, our method is not only applicable to static barcodes but also allows real-time tracking and segmentation of barcodes captured in dynamic situations.

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  • Senbai ZHANG, Aijun LIU, Chen HAN, Xiaohu LIANG, Xiang DING, Aihong LU
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Satellite Communications
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 876-884
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 13, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Due to the significant difference in speed between the user terminals (UTs) and the low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, it is necessary to solve the frequent handover of UTs at the edge of the moving satellite beams. Besides, as the development of LEO satellite communications, the scale of constellations and the number of UTs undergoing massive increase. Thus, in this paper, a satellite handover strategy is proposed to improve the handover performances of UTs and satellites. We define the utility function of handover jointly by considering the quality of experience of UTs, the throughput of satellites and the load balancing of network. Then, a coding method is proposed to represent the combinations of UTs and satellites. To reduce the calculational cost, an access and handover strategy based on a heuristic algorithm is proposed to search the optimal handover result. Finally, simulations show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy.

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  • Chia-Hsing YANG, Ming-Chun LEE, Ta-Sung LEE, Hsiu-Chi CHANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Sensing
    2022 Volume E105.B Issue 7 Pages 885-892
    Published: July 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 13, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) have been extensively studied in recent years to improve the safety and efficiency of transportation. The use of a radar system to enable the ITSs monitor the environment is robust to weather conditions and is less invasive to user privacy. Moreover, equipping the roadside units (RSUs) with radar modules has been deemed an economical and efficient option for ITS operators. However, because the detection and tracking parameters can significantly influence the radar system performance and the best parameters for different scenarios are different, the selection of appropriate parameters for the radar systems is critical. In this study, we investigated radar parameter selection and consequently proposes a parameter selection approach capable of automatically choosing the appropriate detection and tracking parameters for radar systems. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method realizes appropriate selection of parameters, thereby significantly improving the detection and tracking performance of radar systems.

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