2019 Volume E102.D Issue 9 Pages 1715-1730
In previous studies, we determined that workloads often contain many input-output (IO) concentrations. Such concentrations are aggregations of IO accesses. They appear in narrow regions of a storage volume and continue for durations of up to about an hour. These narrow regions occupy a small percentage of the logical unit number capacity, include most IO accesses, and appear at unpredictable logical block addresses. We investigated these workloads by focusing on page-level regularity and found that they often include few regularities. This means that simple caching may not reduce the response time for these workloads sufficiently because the cache migration algorithm uses page-level regularity. We previously developed an on-the-fly automated storage tiering (OTF-AST) system consisting of an SSD and an HDD. The migration algorithm identifies IO concentrations with moderately long durations and migrates them from the HDD to the SSD. This means that there is little or no reduction in the response time when the workload includes few such concentrations. We have now developed a hybrid storage system consisting of a cache drive with an SSD and HDD and a multi-tier SSD that uses OTF-AST, called “OTF-AST with caching.” The OTF-AST scheme handles the IO accesses that produce moderately long duration IO concentrations while the caching scheme handles the remaining IO accesses. Experiments showed that the average response time for our system was 45% that of Facebook FlashCache on a Microsoft Research Cambridge workload.