This paper presents a technique to reduce the quantum cost by making temporary changes to the functionality of a given Boolean function. This technique is one of the very few known methods based on manipulating Exclusive-or Sum-Of-Products (ESOP) expressions to reduce the quantum cost of the corresponding circuit. The idea involves adding Mixed Polarity Multiple-Control Toffoli (MPMCT) gates to temporarily change the functionality of the given function, so that the modified function has a smaller quantum cost. To compensate for the temporary change, additional gates are inserted into the circuit. The proposed method finds a small ESOP expression for the given function, and then finds a good pair of product terms in the ESOP expression so that the quantum cost can be reduced by applying the transformation. The proposed approach is likely to produce a better quantum cost reduction than the existing methods, and indeed experimental results confirm this expectation.
With the availability of virtualization extension in mobile processors, e.g. ARM Cortex A-15, multiple virtual execution domains are efficiently supported in a mobile platform. Each execution domain requires high-performance graphics services for full-featured user interfaces such as smooth scrolling, background image blurring, and 3D images. However, graphics service is hard to be virtualized because multiple service components (e.g. ION and Fence) are involved. Moreover, the complexity of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) device driver also makes harder virtualizing graphics service. In this paper, we propose a technique to virtualize the graphics architecture of Android mobile platform in KVM/ARM environment. The Android graphics architecture relies on underlying Linux kernel services such as the frame buffer memory allocator ION, the buffer synchronization service Fence, GPU device driver, and the display synchronization service VSync. These kernel services are provided as device files in Linux kernel. Our approach is to para-virtualize these device files based on a split device driver model. A major challenge is to translate guest-view of information into host-view of information, e.g. memory address translation, file descriptor management, and GPU Memory Management Unit (MMU) manipulation. The experimental results show that the proposed graphics virtualization technique achieved almost 84%-100% performance of native applications.
The growth in the amount of information available on the Internet and thousands of user queries per second brings huge challenges to the index update and query processing of search engines. Index compression is partially responsible for the current performance achievements of existing search engines. The selection of the index compression algorithms must weigh three factors, i.e., compression ratio, compression speed and decompression speed. In this paper, we study the well-known Simple-9 compression, in which exist many branch operations, table lookup and data transfer operations when processing each 32-bit machine word. To enhance the compression and decompression performance of Simple-9 algorithm, we propose a successive storage structure and processing metric to compress two successive Simple-9 encoded sequence of integers in a single data processing procedure, thus the name Successive Simple-9 (SSimple-9). In essence, the algorithm shortens the process of branch operations, table lookup and data transfer operations when compressing the integer sequence. More precisely, we initially present the data storage format and mask table of SSimple-9 algorithm. Then, for each mode in the mask table, we design and hard-code the main steps of the compression and decompression processes. Finally, analysis and comparison on the experimental results of the simulation and TREC datasets show the compression and decompression efficiency speedup of the proposed SSimple-9 algorithm.
This paper presents an ontology-based driving decision making system, which can promptly make safety decisions in real-world driving. Analyzing sensor data for improving autonomous driving safety has become one of the most promising issues in the autonomous vehicles research field. However, representing the sensor data in a machine understandable format for further knowledge processing still remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we introduce ontologies designed for autonomous vehicles and ontology-based knowledge base, which are used for representing knowledge of maps, driving paths, and perceived driving environments. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are developed to improve safety of autonomous vehicles by accessing to the ontology-based knowledge base. The ontologies can be reused and extended for constructing knowledge base for autonomous vehicles as well as for implementing different types of ADAS such as decision making system.
Knowledge graph (KG) embedding aims at learning the latent semantic representations for entities and relations. However, most existing approaches can only be applied to KG completion, so cannot identify relations including unseen entities (or Out-of-KG entities). In this paper, motivated by the zero-shot learning, we propose a novel model, namely JointE, jointly learning KG and entity descriptions embedding, to extend KG by adding new relations with Out-of-KG entities. The JointE model is evaluated on entity prediction for zero-shot embedding. Empirical comparisons on benchmark datasets show that the proposed JointE model outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. The source code of JointE is available at https://github.com/yzur/JointE.
Previously, it is not obvious to what extent was accepted for the assessors when we see the 3D image (including multi-view 3D) which the luminance change may affect the stereoscopic effect and assessment generally. We think that we can conduct a general evaluation, along with a subjective evaluation, of the luminance component using both the S-CIELAB color space and CIEDE2000. In this study, first, we performed three types of subjective evaluation experiments for contrast enhancement in an image by using the eight viewpoints parallax barrier method. Next, we analyzed the results statistically by using a support vector machine (SVM). Further, we objectively evaluated the luminance value measurement by using CIEDE2000 in the S-CIELAB color space. Then, we checked whether the objective evaluation value was related to the subjective evaluation value. From results, we were able to see the characteristic relationship between subjective assessment and objective assessment.
This paper presents a single image super-resolution (SR) algorithm based on self-similarity using non-local-mean (NLM) metric. In order to accurately find the best self-example even under noisy environment, NLM weight is employed as a self-similarity metric. Also, a pixel-wise soft-switching is presented to overcome an inherent drawback of conventional self-example-based SR that it seldom works for texture areas. For the pixel-wise soft-switching, an edge-oriented saliency map is generated for each input image. Here, we derived the saliency map which can be robust against noises by using a specific training. The proposed algorithm works as follows: First, auxiliary images for an input low-resolution (LR) image are generated. Second, self-examples for each LR patch are found from the auxiliary images on a block basis, and the best match in terms of self-similarity is found as the best self-example. Third, a preliminary high-resolution (HR) image is synthesized using all the self-examples. Next, an edge map and a saliency map are generated from the input LR image, and pixel-wise weights for soft-switching of the next step are computed from those maps. Finally, a super-resolved HR image is produced by soft-switching between the preliminary HR image for edges and a linearly interpolated image for non-edges. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art SR algorithms qualitatively and quantitatively.
This paper proposes a novel framework for enhancing underwater images captured by optical imaging model and non-local means denoising. The proposed approach adjusts the color balance using biasness correction and the average luminance. Scene visibility is then enhanced based on an underwater optical imaging model. The increase in noise in the enhanced images is alleviated by non-local means (NLM) denoising. The final enhanced images are characterized by improved visibility while retaining color fidelity and reducing noise. The proposed method does not require specialized hardware nor prior knowledge of the underwater environment.
Recommender systems have attracted attention in both the academic and the business areas. They aim to give users more intelligent methods for navigating and identifying complex information spaces, especially in e-commerce domain. However, these systems still have to overcome certain limitations that reduce their performance, such as overspecialization of recommendations, cold-start, and difficulties when items with unequal probability distribution exist. A novel approach addresses the above issues through a case-based recommendation methodology which is a form of content-based recommendation that is well suited to many product recommendation domains, owing to the clear organization of users' needs and preferences. Unfortunately, the experience-based roots of case-based reasoning are not clearly reflected in case-based recommenders. In other words, the concept that product cases, which are usually fixed feature-based tuples, are experiential is not adopted well in case-based recommenders. To solve this problem as well as the recommenders' rating sparsity issue, one can use product reviews which are generated from users' experience with the product a basis of product information. Our approach adapts the use of sentiment scores along with feature similarity throughout the recommendation unlike traditional case-based recommender systems, which tend to depend entirely on pure similarity-based approaches. This paper models product cases with the products' features and sentiment scores at the feature level and product level. Thus, combining user experience and similarity measures improves the recommender performance and gives users more flexibility to choose whether they prefer products more similar to their query or better qualified products. We present the results using different evaluation methods for different case structures, different numbers of similar cases retrieved and multilevel sentiment-approaches. The recommender performance was highly improved with the use of feature-level sentiment approach, which recommends product cases that are similar to the query but favored for customers.
This paper investigates the effect of noises added to hidden units of AutoEncoders linked to multilayer perceptrons. It is shown that internal representation of learned features emerges and sparsity of hidden units increases when independent Gaussian noises are added to inputs of hidden units during the deep network training. It is also shown that the weights that connect the contaminated hidden units with the next layer have smaller values and outputs of hidden units tend to be more definite (0 or 1). This is expected to improve the generalization ability of the network through this automatic structuration by adding the noises. This network structuration was confirmed by experiments for MNIST digits classification via a deep neural network model.
During the development of a human embryo, the position of eyes moves medially and caudally in the viscerocranium. A statistical model of this process can play an important role in embryology by facilitating qualitative analyses of change. This paper proposes an algorithm to construct a spatiotemporal statistical model for the eyeballs of a human embryo. The proposed modeling algorithm builds a statistical model of the spatial coordinates of the eyeballs independently for each Carnegie stage (CS) by using principal component analysis (PCA). In the process, a q-Gaussian distribution with a model selection scheme based on the Aaike information criterion is used to handle a non-Gaussian distribution with a small sample size. Subsequently, it seamlessly interpolates the statistical models of neighboring CSs, and we present 10 interpolation methods. We also propose an estimation algorithm for the CS using our spatiotemporal statistical model. A set of images of eyeballs in human embryos from the Kyoto Collection was used to train the model and assess its performance. The modeling results suggested that information geometry-based interpolation under the assumption of a q-Gaussian distribution is the best modeling method. The average error in CS estimation was 0.409. We proposed an algorithm to construct a spatiotemporal statistical model of the eyeballs of a human embryo and tested its performance using the Kyoto Collection.
With rapid increase of the number of applications as well as the sizes of data, multi-query processing on the MapReduce framework has gained much attention. Meanwhile, there have been much interest in skyline query processing due to its power of multi-criteria decision making and analysis. Recently, there have been attempts to optimize multi-query processing in MapReduce. However, they are not appropriate to process multiple skyline queries efficiently and they also require modifications of the Hadoop internals. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for processing multi-skyline queries with MapReduce without any modification of the Hadoop internals. Through various experiments, we show that our approach outperforms previous studies by orders of magnitude.
We study the problem of determining the minimum number of open-edge guards which guard the interior of a given orthogonal polygon with holes. Here, an open-edge guard is a guard which is allowed to be placed along open edges of a polygon, that is, the endpoints of the edge are not taken into account for visibility purpose. It is shown that finding the minimum number of open-edge guards for a given orthogonal polygon with holes is NP-hard.
An automotive control system is a typical safety-critical embedded software, which requires extensive verification and validation (V&V) activities. This article introduces a toolset for automated V&V of automotive control system, including a test generator for automotive operating systems, a task simulator for validating task design of control software, and an API-call constraint checker to check emergent properties when composing control software with its underlying operating system. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first integrated toolset that supports V&V activities for both control software and operating systems in the same framework.
Collaborative filtering with only implicit feedbacks has become a quite common scenario (e.g. purchase history, click-through log, and page visitation). This kind of feedback data only has a small portion of positive instances reflecting the user's interaction. Such characteristics pose great challenges to dealing with implicit recommendation problems. In this letter, we take full advantage of matrix factorization and relative preference to make the recommendation model more scalable and flexible. In addition, we propose to take into consideration the concept of covisitation which captures the underlying relationships between items or users. To this end, we propose the algorithm Integrated Collaborative Filtering for Implicit Feedback incorporating Covisitation (ICFIF-C) to integrate matrix factorization and collaborative ranking incorporating the covisitation of users and items simultaneously to model recommendation with implicit feedback. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms on three standard datasets.
Maximizing the profit of datacenter networks (DCNs) demands to satisfy more flows' requirements simultaneously, but existing schemes always allocate resource based on single flow attribute, which cannot carry out accurate resource allocation and make many flows failed. In this letter, we propose Highest Priority Flow First (HPFF) to maximize DCN profit, which allocates resource for flows according to the priority. HPFF employs a utility function that considers multiple flow attributes, including flow size, deadline and demanded bandwidth, to calculate the priority for each flow. The experiments on the testbed show that HPFF can improve the network profit by 6.75%-19.7% and decrease the number of failed flow by 26.3%-83.3% compared with existing schemes under real DCN workloads.
Both gender and identity recognition task with hand vein information is solved based on the proposed cross-selected-domain transfer learning model. State-of-the-art recognition results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model for pattern recognition task, and the capability to avoid over-fitting of fine-tuning DCNN with small-scaled database.
Small group detection is still a challenging problem in crowds. Traditional methods use the trajectory information to measure pairwise similarity which is sensitive to the variations of group density and interactive behaviors. In this paper, we propose two types of information by simultaneously incorporating trajectory and interaction information, to detect small groups in crowds. The trajectory information is used to describe the spatial proximity and motion information between trajectories. The interaction information is designed to capture the interactive behaviors from video sequence. To achieve this goal, two classifiers are exploited to discover interpersonal relations. The assumption is that interactive behaviors often occur in group members while there are no interactions between individuals in different groups. The pairwise similarity is enhanced by combining the two types of information. Finally, an efficient clustering approach is used to achieve small group detection. Experiments show that the significant improvement is gained by exploiting the interaction information and the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Feature representation, as a key component of scene character recognition, has been widely studied and a number of effective methods have been proposed. In this letter, we propose the novel method named coupled spatial learning (CSL) for scene character representation. Different from the existing methods, the proposed CSL method simultaneously discover the spatial context in both the dictionary learning and coding stages. Concretely, we propose to build the spatial dictionary by preserving the corresponding positions of the codewords. Correspondingly, we introduce the spatial coding strategy which utilizes the spatiality regularization to consider the relationship among features in the Euclidean space. Based on the spatial dictionary and spatial coding, the spatial context can be effectively integrated in the visual representations. We verify our method on two widely used databases (ICDAR2003 and Chars74k), and the experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we further validate the proposed CSL method on the Caltech-101 database for image classification task, and the experimental results show the good generalization ability of the proposed CSL.
This study proposes an effective pseudo relevance feedback method for information retrieval in the context of question answering. The method separates two retrieval models to improve the precision of initial search and the recall of feedback search. The topic-preserving query expansion links the two models to prevent the topic shift.
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