IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Current issue
Displaying 1-11 of 11 articles from this issue
Regular Section
  • Zheng WANG, Yi DI
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1135-1149
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The objective of critical nodes problem is to minimize pair-wise connectivity as a result of removing a specific number of nodes in the residual graph. From a mathematical modeling perspective, it comes the truth that the more the number of fragmented components and the evenly distributed of disconnected sub-graphs, the better the quality of the solution. Basing on this conclusion, we proposed a new Cluster Expansion Method for Critical Node Problem (CEMCNP), which on the one hand exploits a contraction mechanism to greedy simplify the complexity of sparse graph model, and on the other hand adopts an incremental cluster expansion approach in order to maintain the size of formed component within reasonable limitation. The proposed algorithm also relies heavily on the idea of multi-start iterative local search algorithm, whereas brings in a diversified late acceptance local search strategy to keep the balance between interleaving diversification and intensification in the process of neighborhood search. Extensive evaluations show that CEMCNP running on 35 of total 42 benchmark instances are superior to the outcome of KBV, while holding 3 previous best results out of the challenging instances. In addition, CEMCNP also demonstrates equivalent performance in comparison with the existing MANCNP and VPMS algorithms over 22 of total 42 graph models with fewer number of node exchange operations.

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  • Jiaheng LIU, Ryusuke EGAWA, Hiroyuki TAKIZAWA
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1150-1163
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    As the number of cores on a processor increases, cache hierarchies contain more cache levels and a larger last level cache (LLC). Thus, the power and energy consumption of the cache hierarchy becomes non-negligible. Meanwhile, because the cache usage behaviors of individual applications can be different, it is possible to achieve higher energy efficiency of the computing system by determining the appropriate cache configurations for individual applications. This paper proposes a cache control mechanism to improve energy efficiency by adjusting a cache hierarchy to each application. Our mechanism first bypasses and disables a less-significant cache level, then partially disables the LLC, and finally adjusts the associativity if it suffers from a large number of conflict misses. The mechanism can achieve significant energy saving at the sacrifice of small performance degradation. The evaluation results show that our mechanism improves energy efficiency by 23.9% and 7.0% on average over the baseline and the cache-level bypassing mechanisms, respectively. In addition, even if the LLC resource contention occurs, the proposed mechanism is still effective for improving energy efficiency.

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  • Weina ZHOU, Ying ZHOU, Xiaoyang ZENG
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1164-1171
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Salient ship detection plays an important role in ensuring the safety of maritime transportation and navigation. However, due to the influence of waves, special weather, and illumination on the sea, existing saliency methods are still unable to achieve effective ship detection in a complex marine environment. To solve the problem, this paper proposed a novel saliency method based on an attention nested U-Structure (AU2Net). First, to make up for the shortcomings of the U-shaped structure, the pyramid pooling module (PPM) and global guidance paths (GGPs) are designed to guide the restoration of feature information. Then, the attention modules are added to the nested U-shaped structure to further refine the target characteristics. Ultimately, multi-level features and global context features are integrated through the feature aggregation module (FAM) to improve the ability to locate targets. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method could have at most 36.75% improvement in F-measure (Favg) compared to the other state-of-the-art methods.

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  • Ding LI, Chunxiang GU, Yuefei ZHU
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1172-1184
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Website Fingerprinting (WF) enables a passive attacker to identify which website a user is visiting over an encrypted tunnel. Current WF attacks have two strong assumptions: (i) specific tunnel, i.e., the attacker can train on traffic samples collected in a simulated tunnel with the same tunnel settings as the user, and (ii) pseudo-open-world, where the attacker has access to training samples of unmonitored sites and treats them as a separate class. These assumptions, while experimentally feasible, render WF attacks less usable in practice. In this paper, we present Gene Fingerprinting (GF), a new WF attack that achieves cross-tunnel transferability by generating fingerprints that reflect the intrinsic profile of a website. The attack leverages Zero-shot Learning — a machine learning technique not requiring training samples to identify a given class — to reduce the effort to collect data from different tunnels and achieve a real open-world. We demonstrate the attack performance using three popular tunneling tools: OpenSSH, Shadowsocks, and OpenVPN. The GF attack attains over 94% accuracy on each tunnel, far better than existing CUMUL, DF, and DDTW attacks. In the more realistic open-world scenario, the attack still obtains 88% TPR and 9% FPR, outperforming the state-of-the-art attacks. These results highlight the danger of our attack in various scenarios where gathering and training on a tunnel-specific dataset would be impractical.

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  • Sathya MADHUSUDHANAN, Suresh JAGANATHAN
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1185-1195
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Incremental Learning, a machine learning methodology, trains the continuously arriving input data and extends the model's knowledge. When it comes to unlabeled data streams, incremental learning task becomes more challenging. Our newly proposed incremental learning methodology, Data Augmented Incremental Learning (DAIL), learns the ever-increasing real-time streams with reduced memory resources and time. Initially, the unlabeled batches of data streams are clustered using the proposed clustering algorithm, Clustering based on Autoencoder and Gaussian Model (CLAG). Later, DAIL creates an updated incremental model for the labelled clusters using data augmentation. DAIL avoids the retraining of old samples and retains only the most recently updated incremental model holding all old class information. The use of data augmentation in DAIL combines the similar clusters generated with different data batches. A series of experiments verified the significant performance of CLAG and DAIL, producing scalable and efficient incremental model.

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  • Hitoshi SUDA, Gaku KOTANI, Daisuke SAITO
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1196-1210
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we propose a new training framework named the INmfCA algorithm for nonparallel voice conversion (VC) systems. To train conversion models, traditional VC frameworks require parallel corpora, in which source and target speakers utter the same linguistic contents. Although the frameworks have achieved high-quality VC, they are not applicable in situations where parallel corpora are unavailable. To acquire conversion models without parallel corpora, nonparallel methods are widely studied. Although the frameworks achieve VC under nonparallel conditions, they tend to require huge background knowledge or many training utterances. This is because of difficulty in disentangling linguistic and speaker information without a large amount of data. In this work, we tackle this problem by exploiting NMF, which can factorize acoustic features into time-variant and time-invariant components in an unsupervised manner. The method acquires alignment between the acoustic features of a source speaker's utterances and a target dictionary and uses the obtained alignment as activation of NMF to train the source speaker's dictionary without parallel corpora. The acquisition method is based on the INCA algorithm, which obtains the alignment of nonparallel corpora. In contrast to the INCA algorithm, the alignment is not restricted to observed samples, and thus the proposed method can efficiently utilize small nonparallel corpora. The results of subjective experiments show that the combination of the proposed algorithm and the INCA algorithm outperformed not only an INCA-based nonparallel framework but also CycleGAN-VC, which performs nonparallel VC without any additional training data. The results also indicate that a one-shot VC framework, which does not need to train source speakers, can be constructed on the basis of the proposed method.

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  • Masahiro MURAYAMA, Toyohiro HIGASHIYAMA, Yuki HARAZONO, Hirotake ISHII ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1211-1224
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    High-quality depth images are required for stable and accurate computer vision. Depth images captured by depth cameras tend to be noisy, incomplete, and of low-resolution. Therefore, increasing the accuracy and resolution of depth images is desirable. We propose a method for reducing the noise and holes from depth images pixel by pixel, and increasing resolution. For each pixel in the target image, the linear space from the focal point of the camera through each pixel to the existing object is divided into equally spaced grids. In each grid, the difference from each grid to the object surface is obtained from multiple tracked depth images, which have noisy depth values of the respective image pixels. Then, the coordinates of the correct object surface are obtainable by reducing the depth random noise. The missing values are completed. The resolution can also be increased by creating new pixels between existing pixels and by then using the same process as that used for noise reduction. Evaluation results have demonstrated that the proposed method can do processing with less GPU memory. Furthermore, the proposed method was able to reduce noise more accurately, especially around edges, and was able to process more details of objects than the conventional method. The super-resolution of the proposed method also produced a high-resolution depth image with smoother and more accurate edges than the conventional methods.

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  • Xin ZENG, Lin ZHANG, Zhongqiang LUO, Xingzhong XIONG, Chengjie LI
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1225-1233
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, the development of visual tracking is getting better and better, but some methods cannot overcome the problem of low accuracy and success rate of tracking. Although there are some trackers will be more accurate, they will cost more time. In order to solve the problem, we propose a reinforced tracker based on Hierarchical Convolutional Features (HCF for short). HOG, color-naming and grayscale features are used with different weights to supplement the convolution features, which can enhance the tracking robustness. At the same time, we improved the model update strategy to save the time costs. This tracker is called RHCF and the code is published on https://github.com/z15846/RHCF. Experiments on the OTB2013 dataset show that our tracker can validly achieve the promotion of the accuracy and success rate.

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  • Zhi WENG, Longzhen FAN, Yong ZHANG, Zhiqiang ZHENG, Caili GONG, Zhongy ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1234-1238
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    As the basis of fine breeding management and animal husbandry insurance, individual recognition of dairy cattle is an important issue in the animal husbandry management field. Due to the limitations of the traditional method of cow identification, such as being easy to drop and falsify, it can no longer meet the needs of modern intelligent pasture management. In recent years, with the rise of computer vision technology, deep learning has developed rapidly in the field of face recognition. The recognition accuracy has surpassed the level of human face recognition and has been widely used in the production environment. However, research on the facial recognition of large livestock, such as dairy cattle, needs to be developed and improved. According to the idea of a residual network, an improved convolutional neural network (Res_5_2Net) method for individual dairy cow recognition is proposed based on dairy cow facial images in this letter. The recognition accuracy on our self-built cow face database (3012 training sets, 1536 test sets) can reach 94.53%. The experimental results show that the efficiency of identification of dairy cows is effectively improved.

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  • Xian CHEN, Xi DENG, Chensen HUANG, Hyoseop SHIN
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1239-1242
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Most research on detecting shilling attacks focuses on users' rating behavior but does not consider that attackers may also attack the users' trusting behavior. For example, attackers may give a low score to other users' ratings so that people would think the ratings from the users are not helpful. In this paper, we define the trust shilling attack, propose the behavior features of trust attacks, and present an effective detection method using machine learning methods. The experimental results demonstrate that, based on our proposed behavior features of trust attacks, we can detect trust shilling attacks as well as traditional shilling attacks accurately.

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  • Kazumoto TANAKA, Yunchuan ZHANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Multimedia Pattern Processing
    2022 Volume E105.D Issue 6 Pages 1243-1248
    Published: June 01, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    We propose an augmented-reality-based method for arranging furniture using natural markers extracted from the edges of the walls of rooms. The proposed method extracts natural markers and estimates the camera parameters from single images of rooms using deep neural networks. Experimental results show that in all the measurements, the superimposition error of the proposed method was lower than that of general marker-based methods that use practical-sized markers.

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