IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Regular Section
Trail: An Architecture for Compact UTXO-Based Blockchain and Smart Contract
Ryunosuke NAGAYAMARyohei BANNOKazuyuki SHUDO
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2022 Volume E105.D Issue 2 Pages 333-343


In Bitcoin and Ethereum, nodes require a large storage capacity to maintain all of the blockchain data such as transactions. As of September 2021, the storage size of the Bitcoin blockchain has expanded to 355 GB, and it has increased by approximately 50 GB every year over the last five years. This storage requirement is a major hurdle to becoming a block proposer or validator. We propose an architecture called Trail that allows nodes to hold all blocks in a small storage and to generate and validate blocks and transactions. A node in Trail holds all blocks without transactions, UTXOs or account balances. The block size is approximately 8 kB, which is 100 times smaller than that of Bitcoin. On the other hand, a client who issues transactions needs to hold proof of its assets. Thus, compared to traditional blockchains, clients must store additional data. We show that proper data archiving can keep the account device storage size small. Then, we propose a method of executing smart contracts in Trail using a threshold signature. Trail allows more users to be block proposers and validators and improves the decentralization and security of the blockchain.

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© 2022 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
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