Volume E94.D (2011) Issue 12 Pages 2479-2486
We developed a novel movement-imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) for untrained subjects without employing machine learning techniques. The development of BCI consisted of several steps. First, spline Laplacian analysis was performed. Next, time-frequency analysis was applied to determine the optimal frequency range and latencies of the electroencephalograms (EEGs). Finally, trials were classified as right or left based on β-band event-related synchronization using the cumulative distribution function of pretrigger EEG noise. To test the performance of the BCI, EEGs during the execution and imagination of right/left wrist-bending movements were measured from 63 locations over the entire scalp using eight healthy subjects. The highest classification accuracies were 84.4% and 77.8% for real movements and their imageries, respectively. The accuracy is significantly higher than that of previously reported machine-learning-based BCIs in the movement imagery task (paired t-test, p < 0.05). It has also been demonstrated that the highest accuracy was achieved even though subjects had never participated in movement imageries.