Volume E96.D (2013) Issue 12 Pages 2675-2683
A virtual machine (VM) migration is useful for improving flexibility and maintainability in cloud computing environments. However, VM monitor (VMM)-bypass I/O technologies, including PCI passthrough and SR-IOV, in which the overhead of I/O virtualization can be significantly reduced, make VM migration impossible. This paper proposes a novel and practical mechanism, called Symbiotic Virtualization (SymVirt), for enabling migration and checkpoint/restart on a virtualized cluster with VMM-bypass I/O devices, without the virtualization overhead during normal operations. SymVirt allows a VMM to cooperate with a message passing layer on the guest OS, then it realizes VM-level migration and checkpoint/restart by using a combination of a user-level dynamic device configuration and coordination of distributed VMMs. We have implemented the proposed mechanism on top of QEMU/KVM and the Open MPI system. All PCI devices, including Infiniband, Ethernet, and Myrinet, are supported without implementing specific para-virtualized drivers; and it is not necessary to modify either of the MPI runtime and applications. Using the proposed mechanism, we demonstrate reactive and proactive FT mechanisms on a virtualized Infiniband cluster. We have confirmed the effectiveness using both a memory intensive micro benchmark and the NAS parallel benchmark.