2013 Volume E96.D Issue 6 Pages 1368-1375
This paper presents a non-blind watermarking technique that is robust to non-linear geometric distortion attacks. This is one of the most challenging problems for copyright protection of digital content because it is difficult to estimate the distortion parameters for the embedded blocks. In our proposed scheme, the location of the blocks are recorded by the translation parameters from multiple Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature points. This method is based on two assumptions: SIFT features are robust to non-linear geometric distortion and even such non-linear distortion can be regarded as “linear” distortion in local regions. We conducted experiments using 149,800 images (7 standard images and 100 images downloaded from Flickr, 10 different messages, 10 different embedding block patterns, and 14 attacks). The results show that the watermark detection performance is drastically improved, while the baseline method can achieve only chance level accuracy.