2015 Volume E98.D Issue 1 Pages 29-37
This paper proposes a speech watermarking method based on the concept of formant tuning. The characteristic that formant tuning can improve the sound quality of synthesized speech was employed to achieve inaudibility for watermarking. In the proposed method, formants were firstly extracted with linear prediction (LP) analysis and then embedded with watermarks by symmetrically controlling a pair of line spectral frequencies (LSFs) as formant tuning. We evaluated the proposed method by two kinds of experiments regarding inaudibility and robustness compared with other methods. Inaudibility was evaluated with objective and subjective tests and robustness was evaluated with speech codecs and speech processing. The results revealed that the proposed method could satisfy both inaudibility and robustness that required for speech watermarking.