2021 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 34-45
Background An increasing number of adolescents are experiencing social maladjustment. This development may be due to serious conflicts regarding psychological independence. This study aimed to elucidate factors that influence psychological independence in adolescents and to clarify the relationship among coaching-based support from significant others, adolescent self-esteem, and adolescent psychological independence, in order to help prevent and treat social maladjustment in adolescents.
Methods A total of 1814 students in all years at 2 universities and 1 junior college in A Prefecture, Japan, completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire asked about the participants’ attributes, support relationships, psychological independence, and self-esteem. Coaching-based support was assessed by the Accelerate your Coaching Effectiveness scale; psychological independence by the Psychological Jiritsu Scale; and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Results Gender, grade, major, current living situation were found to influence psychological independence of adolescents. The most significant others who had the most influence on psychological independence were mothers, fathers, and friends for male adolescents, and mothers, friends, and fathers for female adolescents, in that order. In female, coaching-based support from significant others increased their self-esteem and promoted all the sub-scales of psychological independence. In male, coaching-based support boosted their self-esteem and promoted the following sub-scales; “future orientation”, “appropriate human relations”, “value judgment and execution”, “responsibility”, and “social perspective”, except for “self-control”.
Conclusion We believe that coaching-based support from significant others can effectively help adolescents build their self-esteem and can promote their psychological independence.